Monday, August 14, 2017

Human Trafficking: How To Prevent Kidnapping


My daughter just got home from an LDS mission in Houston, Texas. It was so good to see her again and to have her around. She and I are a lot alike. I worried about her in Houston and had to trust in the mission and Heavenly Father that she would be protected. Houston is known for kidnapping similar to Phoenix, Arizona. I have taught all my kids safety, situational awareness, always having access to some sort of weapon, and just keeping their head. All my kids have learned to shoot. I’ve taught them the proper way to use a tactical pen, pepper spray, basics of knife fighting, and some hand-to-hand moves. I’ve always thought my kids were well prepared.

The FBI estimates that well over 100,000 children and young women are trafficked in America today. They range in age from 9 to 19, with the average age being 11. Human Trafficking is now recognized as the second largest criminal industry in the world. Often females are targeted but really males are becoming just as frequent.
As an adult or teenager here are some tips to stay safe.
Going to and from your car can be a vulnerable time. Have your keys out, your head up, and get to your vehicle quickly. Scan the inside before you get in and then lock the doors when in.
Avoid leaving your home at a specific time or during certain hours every day. Change your schedule a bit. Regular car routes to the office or to school should also be changed once in a while. If possible, change the vehicles that you use.

Be careful not to reveal too much about yourself or your family members via social media. Never reveal addresses and be sure to turn off the GPS function on your smartphones. Don’t post on social media the places you frequent. Some people are unaware that Facebook and other sites reveal the specific residential area from where you are posting on social media. The internet is not secure.

Obviously be vigilant at night but in the day too. Situational awareness is always important. Don’t be distracted by cell phones, what you just bought, or even conversation. Being with someone helps. But stay aware. If you’re alone and feel weird about a situation go back into the store, mall, or restaurant and ask an employee to walk you to your vehicle. Park as close as possible to buildings but park under lights.

If approached by someone don’t be distracted by what they are doing or saying to let down your situational awareness. Usually they lie in wait so approach in a way where you can see around other vehicles, poles, bushes, or other obstructions.
Don’t get caught up in looks. A criminal can look like anyone. Usually there are two or more involved. Watch your 6. Usually their vehicle is near. They may be in it just waiting. They will try to flank you or approach from the rear while a distraction is in front of you.
Be vocal. Yell or scream. Use a whistle or even a horn. You want to draw attention to what is going on and to them. I knew a girl who was approached by two guys and she went into a defensive stance and yelled “Come and get some of this!” They took off.
Women don’t dress skimpy. I know you think it’s sexy but it really isn’t. You don’t really want the kind of guy who is attracted to that. It may help to dress modestly. Also, consider what footwear you wear. If you spend the summer in flip flops you may want to rethink that. Sandals and flip flops are hard to run in. So are tight pants/skirts. This is not just for the women, guys can get caught in the wrong clothes too.
Be aware of your surroundings. Try to stay in heavily populated places.

Know how to defend yourself. Whether it is weapons or fighting, get trained and practice.

Tips for parents:

Know your child's whereabouts at all times.
At a very early age, teach your child their name, address and telephone number and your first and last name.
Teach them how to call 9-1-1 for help. When using the telephone for these lessons, make sure the call to 9-1-1 doesn't actually connect. When our kids were small we used an unplugged hardline phone.
Make sure children know how to make local and long distance telephone calls.
Never leave children alone in a car, not even for a few seconds.
Establish strict procedures for picking up children at school, after movies, at friends' homes, etc.
Establish a family code word that only you, your child and a trusted relative or friend knows. Teach your child to ask for the code word when approached by someone offering them a ride.
Remind your children to never accept a ride from someone you don't know, even if the child knows them.
Talk to your children about child abduction in a simple, non-threatening way. Don’t scare them.
Listen to your child when he or she discusses anyone they have met or spoken with when you weren't around.
Have photographs taken of your children at least four times a year (especially for preschoolers). Make note of birthmarks or other distinguishing features.
Have your child fingerprinted and store the prints in a safe, easily accessible place in your home.
Teach your children to:
Never leave home without your permission. Very small children should play only in areas away from the street, such as a backyard, or in a play area supervised by a responsible adult.
Never wander off, to avoid isolated places, and to avoid shortcuts through alleys or deserted areas. They are safer walking or playing with friends.
Come straight home from school unless you have made other arrangements.
Never enter anyone's home without your approval.
Scream, run away and tell you or a trusted adult if anyone attempts to touch or grab them, of if a stranger offers them a ride.
Never give any information over the telephone including their name and address, or indicate they are alone.
Keep doors locked and admit only authorized people into the house.
Rules for baby-sitters:
Leave a number where you, a neighbor or relative can be reached in the event of an emergency. In addition, if you have a cell phone, give the sitter that number and carry your phone with you while you're out. Make sure the battery is fully charged before you leave.
Never allow the sitter to admit strangers into your home. The best rule: no company allowed.
Instruct the sitter that phone use is for emergencies only, not for chatting with friends.
Leave the number for your local law enforcement agency and tell the sitter to call immediately if there are any signs of suspicious activity or unusual noises.

Being safe is not difficult but you must be vigilant and not let your guard down. Do this and you and your family can be happy, safe, and secure.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Friday, August 11, 2017

Overwatch: Drill Of The Month For August


5×5 Drill

Skill Focus: combining speed and accuracy
Distance: 5 yards

Target: 5-inch circles with center aiming dot.
Instructions: Five shots, five inches, five yards, five seconds. Starting from a low ready position, at the beep fire five rounds at the circle. The goal is to land all five shots in the circle within five seconds.
Variations: For an added challenge, draw from the holster instead of low ready. To test consistency, repeat the drill five times. A “pass” is 25 shots with no misses.
This drill was originally developed by Gila Hayes and outlined in her book Effective Defense. Claude Werner suggested the idea to run the drill five times in a row, which he calls the 5^5 Drill. The drill seems simple, but is deceptively difficult to clear 100% every time. As Hayes suggests, this drill can be used as a litmus test for whether a shooter can perform well enough with a specific gun to responsibly carry it. If you can clear the drill easily with a full size pistol, but struggle to pass with your small carry gun, it may be time to re-think your choice (or practice more with the gun you actually carry).

See “Overwatch: Drill of the Month” page for more drills

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Not Being A Man Of Blood

There is a story in the Book of Mormon that bears repeating, again and again. It is the story of Moroni, the Nephite Captain, and Zerahemnah, a Lamanite Captain. The Lamanites had a large Army. It was bigger in number than the Nephites. But Moroni was smart and outfitted his army in armor. The Lamanites only had a loincloth. Moroni and his army were also righteous. As the battle went on the Nephites were defeating the Lamanites. At one point they had them surrounded in a valley. They were winning and in the middle of it all, Moroni gave the command to stop, and had his men take a step back. Then he gave this speech:
1 And it came to pass that they did stop and withdrew a pace from them. And Moroni said unto Zerahemnah: Behold, Zerahemnah, that we do not desire to be men of blood. Ye know that ye are in our hands, yet we do not desire to slay you.
2 Behold, we have not come out to battle against you that we might shed your blood for power; neither do we desire to bring any one to the yoke of bondage. But this is the very cause for which ye have come against us; yea, and ye are angry with us because of our religion.
3 But now, ye behold that the Lord is with us; and ye behold that he has delivered you into our hands. And now I would that ye should understand that this is done unto us because of our religion and our faith in Christ. And now ye see that ye cannot destroy this our faith.
4 Now ye see that this is the true faith of God; yea, ye see that God will support, and keep, and preserve us, so long as we are faithful unto him, and unto our faith, and our religion; and never will the Lord suffer that we shall be destroyed except we should fall into transgression and deny our faith.
5 And now, Zerahemnah, I command you, in the name of that all-powerful God, who has strengthened our arms that we have gained power over you, by our faith, by our religion, and by our rites of worship, and by our church, and by the sacred support which we owe to our wives and our children, by that liberty which binds us to our lands and our country; yea, and also by the maintenance of the sacred word of God, to which we owe all our happiness; and by all that is most dear unto us—
6 Yea, and this is not all; I command you by all the desires which ye have for life, that ye deliver up your weapons of war unto us, and we will seek not your blood, but we will spare your lives, if ye will go your way and come not again to war against us.
7 And now, if ye do not this, behold, ye are in our hands, and I will command my men that they shall fall upon you, and inflict the wounds of death in your bodies, that ye may become extinct; and then we will see who shall have power over this people; yea, we will see who shall be brought into bondage.
Zerahemnah’s response was terse and adamant: “Behold, here are our weapons of war; we will deliver them up unto you, but we will not suffer ourselves to take an oath unto you, which we know that we shall break, and also our children; but take our weapons of war, and suffer that we may depart into the wilderness; otherwise we will retain our swords, and we will perish or conquer”
They finally were put in a position to take an oath and depart.
Zerahemna was not considered a good guy. He hated Nephites. He even appointed ex-Nephite leaders because he knew they were more ruthless. Yet he knew the importance of an oath. He wouldn’t take an oath he would probably break.
Moroni felt the same way.
11 Now I cannot recall the words which I have spoken, therefore as the Lord liveth, ye shall not depart except ye depart with an oath that ye will not return again against us to war. Now as ye are in our hands we will spill your blood upon the ground, or ye shall submit to the conditions which I have proposed.
He was willing to continue a battle to death rather than let the Lamanites leave without taking an oath to not come back to battle against them.
How are we with oaths? Would we be willing to risk our lives rather than break an oath?
As LDS members we get baptized and make a covenant with God. When we make this covenant it is similar to an oath. A covenant is two sided where an oath is more one sided.
June 1, 2017 marked the 288th anniversary of the first military oath taken. I know that was over a month ago, but it’s been on my mind. I know that I usually talk about this every year but I do that because I find it most important in my own life and my family’s lives.
I would rewrite Moroni’s words for myself.
I do not aspire to be a man of bloodshed. But if bloodshed must be to protect me or my family, “then we will see who shall have power over me and my family; yea, we will see who shall be brought into bondage.”
There comes a time when we must stand up. There comes a time when we must defend. Will we ever be called upon again to fight off tyranny? I do not know. I hope not. Will we have to fight off evil? We already do fight off evil, but it may come to a physical fight. Will you be ready? Will you have training? Will you have the means to defend your family? You cannot depend on anyone or anything else. If you do, you’re lying to yourself. Can the police really save your family from murder and rape? They are good, but not that good. They will clean up after all the evil is gone. They will bring the criminals to justice, but how can they defend your family in their moment of need? You must be there for them. You can’t expect God to do something you have been charged to do. If you have the means to defend, have had the training and have practiced, then Heavenly Father can step in if Devine help is needed. We must depend on God after all we can do.
I know this article is the proverbial “beating the dead horse” but I feel strongly about it and want spread this sentiment. You do not have to be a violent person to desire to defend yourself and your family. When the time to do violence comes, if you have prepared, you will do what needs to be done. But only if prepared. Be prepared.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Monday, August 7, 2017

Monthly Read: Book Review For August

Monthly Read
Once a month I will review and recommend a book. I know in this digital world that paper books are a little out dated. Most hard copy books are now in digital form, often in PDF. I would recommend a good well rounded hard copy library in your home. Some of the best books are old and out of print. There are certain publishers and authors I really like. This will be books I like and really only my opinion. If you’d like to recommend a book for me to review e-mail me and we can make it happen. The subjects will be varied but will have to do with the theme of this website, LDS Gunsite. Guns, preparedness, LDS History, security, self-defense, and patriotism are just a few examples. I have a big library of mostly reference books so I will draw heavily from that. Some books may be old and out of print. But most will be books you can find on Amazon.
August’s Monthly Read is: “Patriots: A Novel of Survival in the Coming Collapse”
By James Wesley Rawles
Publisher’s summary:
America faces a full-scale socioeconomic collapse—the stock market plummets, hyperinflation cripples commerce and the mounting crisis passes the tipping point. Practically overnight, the fragile chains of supply and high-technology infrastructure fall, and wholesale rioting and looting grip every major city.

As hordes of refugees and looters pour out of the cities, a small group of friends living in the Midwest desperately tries to make their way to a safe-haven ranch in northern Idaho. The journey requires all their skill and training since communication, commerce, transportation and law enforcement have all disappeared. Once at the ranch, the group fends off vicious attacks from outsiders and then looks to join other groups that are trying to restore true Constitutional law to the country.

Patriots is a thrilling narrative depicting fictional characters using authentic survivalist techniques to endure the collapse of the American civilization. Reading this compelling, fast-paced novel could one day mean the difference between life and death.

I have been a “prepper”, whatever that really is, my entire life. Coming across this book was a natural part of being in the self-sufficiency/preparedness world. It’s an unusual approach to a “manual”. James Rawles wrote a novel around a manual. In this book many different subjects are covered. If you’re looking for a good novel, this is not it. It was introduced to me as a manual so my expectations as a novel were nominal. It’s not particularly written well as a novel, but pretty good as a manual. I wish some subjects would have been more explored. But I like the idea and was happy with the book. I liked that the book has a heavy leaning toward Christian values. I would recommend it to anyone but especially if you’re into preparation.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Extreme Weapons And The Atomic Bomb

72 years ago day before yesterday, the 6th of August, marks the day the United States used the unthinkable weapon on Japan in 1945 ending the war with Japan. On that day at 8:16 a.m. Japanese time, an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, drops the world’s first atom bomb, over the city of Hiroshima. Approximately 80,000 people are killed as a direct result of the blast, and another 35,000 are injured. At least another 60,000 would be dead by the end of the year from the effects of the fallout.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman, discouraged by the Japanese response to the Potsdam Conference’s demand for unconditional surrender, made the decision to use the atom bomb to end the war in order to prevent what he predicted would be a much greater loss of life were the United States to invade the Japanese mainland. And so on August 5, while a “conventional” bombing of Japan was underway, “Little Boy,” (the nickname for one of two atom bombs available for use against Japan), was loaded onto Lt. Col. Paul W. Tibbets’ plane on Tinian Island in the Marianas. Tibbets’ B-29, named the Enola Gay after his mother, left the island at 2:45 a.m. on August 6. Five and a half hours later, “Little Boy” was dropped, exploding 1,900 feet over a hospital and unleashing the equivalent of 12,500 tons of TNT. The bomb had several inscriptions scribbled on its shell, one of which read “Greetings to the Emperor from the men of the Indianapolis” (the ship that transported the bomb to the Marianas).
There were 90,000 buildings in Hiroshima before the bomb was dropped; only 28,000 remained after the bombing. Of the city’s 200 doctors before the explosion; only 20 were left alive or capable of working. There were 1,780 nurses before-only 150 remained who were able to tend to the sick and dying.
This was awesome destruction from a weapon no one could imagine. Ever since several countries have nuclear weapon capabilities.
The United States, Russia, China, India, Israel, France, North Korea, Pakistan, and The United Kingdom are the only countries that have these capabilities.
The debate about whether the bomb should have used in 1945 has been debated for decades and probably will be for centuries.
I have never ordered men into battle. Often commanders order men to their death even though it meets a certain objective. The estimate of dead, had the war continued, are in the millions. Some say 4 million on the Allied side. Iwo Jima alone had a casualty rate of almost 50,000 from both sides. What would an invasion force face on Japanese soil? They believed their Emperor to be God. How hard would you fight for your God on your home soil? Until the last person? This is only my belief, with my limited knowledge, but I believe in those “million” numbers that have been batted around.
In the Mormon faith we believe the Bible to be the word of God. We also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God, as a second witness of Christ. In the Book of Mormon, 1st Nephi chapter 4 verses 5 through 18. The prophet Nephi is a young man. He is sent to get records that his people, and future generations, would need to learn what God had for them. An evil King would not give him the records and sought his life, and the lives of his brothers. He also stole property they had offered to buy the records. The evil King Noah was delivered into Nephi’s hands and he was told by the Spirit to kill him. Nephi had never killed anyone and he was afraid. He was told 2 more times to kill the evil king. The last time the Spirit said this to him,
Verse 13 “Behold the Lord slayeth the wicked to bring forth his righteous purposes. It is better that one man should perish than that a nation should dwindle and perish in unbelief.”
Now I’m not saying that President Roosevelt was moved upon by the Spirit to bomb Japan, but I think the same applies. It is better than a few 100 thousand die, rather than millions of those who are only defending themselves from countries that want to destroy or enslave them.
Why do I bring up this controversial event? Because using lethal force has been talked about as being extreme. Killing another human being is extreme. But I’m not sure letting criminals live, kill or hurt me or my family, go to prison, and possibly get out and do it again is the answer. I am not a man of war or violence. I advocate violence in the face of violence. I do not wish to be a man of blood. In Alma 44 we read:
“1 And it came to pass that they did stop and withdrew a pace from them. And Moroni said unto Zerahemnah: Behold, Zerahemnah, that we do not desire to be men of blood. Ye know that ye are in our hands, yet we do not desire to slay you.
2 Behold, we have not come out to battle against you that we might shed your blood for power; neither do we desire to bring any one to the yoke of bondage. But this is the very cause for which ye have come against us; yea, and ye are angry with us because of our religion.”
I want to be able to defend myself and my family (as Moroni mentioned in the Title of Liberty
Alma 46: 12 “And it came to pass that he rent his coat; and he took a piece thereof, and wrote upon it—In memory of our God, our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children—and he fastened it upon the end of a pole.”) and I may have to use lethal force. I’ve been trained to do this, yet I really hope I’ll never get any use out of that training.
I also believe in the traditional family of Mom, Dad, and kids. I know this is not reality all of the time because of death, divorce, and other circumstances. So this next part is not meant to be exclusive to a man or a father but a head of the household. I’m not trying to be politically correct, just reality based.
The LDS Church’s “The Family: A Proclamation To The World” says”:
“By divine design, fathers are to preside over their families in love and righteousness and are responsible to provide the necessities of life and protection for their families.”
It also states:
“Husbands and wives—mothers and fathers—will be held accountable before God for the discharge of these obligations.”
If that isn’t a charge to protect your family then I don’t know what is. I believe that protection entails spiritual, emotional, mental, moral, and physical protection. I focus on the physical. That takes in a roof over their heads. Food for their lives, and actual physical protection. If someone, or something, should threaten your family, you should use everything within your means to protect them. If it is a “bug” or sickness, will you try to provide medical attention, medication, clean water, and food and warmth to “kill” that bug. What if that threat were a wild animal? Would you defend them against that? What if that “animal” is a human? Would you protect your family with lethal force? Do you have the means? Do you have the training?
I hope you will do all that you can. Even if that means using “extreme” weapons to protect you and yours. That’s what this blog is all about. Protection.
Just as an atomic bomb was used because we could not see many innocents dying because of a stubborn ideology, I cannot see my family suffering because someone insists on breaking laws or has lost their minds. I’d love to control them as Moroni tried with the Army of Zarahemna. But short of that control is stopping that threat. If pulling my weapon and a verbal “Stop!” makes the threat withdraw, then I got off without having to use lethal force. The day is good. But if, like Moroni, evil cannot be reasoned with, I will “…spill (evil’s) blood upon the ground, or ye shall submit to the conditions which I have proposed.” Which conditions are to leave in peace and never bother my family again.
Will you be prepared? Will you use extreme weapons in the face of evil to save innocents? I have entered into an oath to protect this country (and my family) from all enemies, foreign and domestic.
A gun is an extreme weapon. It must be used with care and skill. These things cannot just come to you. You must legally purchase a gun and anything else you may need with that. You must seek the training and then practice what you have been taught. Shooting is a perishing skill. If not practiced, you can lose the skill. You must commit to protect your family in any and every way. To do this you must be prepared.
Be safe and train on!
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Tuesday, August 1, 2017

When To Check Your BOB and FAK

Organization in preparation

I’ve heard a story of a person who was really into preparedness. They weren’t obsessed (like me), but were prepared in most things.
They were at a park with their kids and one of the kids cut themselves. It wasn’t a real serious cut but first aid needed to be applied. This person went to their first aid kit, that they carried in their vehicle every day, and got their kit. They were able to help the child but had to improvise some things. They found that the antiseptic wipes that were still in their original sealed bag were all dried out. The hand sanitizer had exploded, though they kept it in its own zip-lock bag so it didn’t make a mess on anything else. Someone had taken all but a few of the over-the-counter pain meds. Also, for some reason the med tape was missing. This person learned a lesson to avoid a “real” emergency. So how often should you review your everyday carry (EDC) first aid kit? What about your bugout bag (BOB)? Here are some hints to get your own maintenance program going for your emergency stuff. First let’s tart with a BOB.
I recommend at least annually checking your BOB. Others will find a need to check it more frequently. In my experience, annual works for me.
We recommend checking the following:
Expirations on food items
Some survival rations have useful lives up to 5 years or more but many are perishable well before then. Make sure you are checking the shelf life of any food items that you are planning on relying on and replace them before they go bad. Rotation is better. Actually eat the food and replace. You may learn that you don’t care for certain foods after all.
Expirations on medications
Medications have a wide range of lifetimes. If you have any medication in your BOB antibiotics, insulin, EpiPens, heart medication, or any others make sure you know how long each will be good for and replace as needed.
Expiration for first aid items
Many single use first aid items such as creams, antiseptic wipes, bandages, and eyewash/irrigation solutions have a limited shelf life. This is generally around the sterility of the item and out of date first aid items should not be used to treat wounds. Of course in an emergency and faced with nothing or something expired, use the expired. Conduct regular first aid kit inspections and replace out of date items as needed. I date things clearly so I don’t have to search for the date.
Battery charge for electronics
One of the biggest advantages of having solar or hand cranked electronic items like radios and flashlights is that you don’t have to worry about the batteries dying at a critical moment. However, if you do have any items in your BOB that do require batteries, these should be checked often to ensure that they have enough charge to power your equipment. An excellent preventative measure against batter drain is to store them in the electronic item (such as a flashlight) with the two positive (+) ends of two batteries facing each other. This prevents any current passing through the dormant circuit and greatly reduces energy seeping from the stored batteries.
If you have a firearm and ammunition in your BOB you should plan on test firing a sampling of once per year. If you have any misfires, plan on replacing rounds from that batch with newer ones. I just switch out the ammo every year. I’ve never had any bad ammo. But I know it’s possible.

Keep in mind that your BOB and plan should be constantly evolving as new factors and information emerge. There are a great many things that can impact your survival situation and keeping your BOB up to date will maximize your chances of survival when disaster strikes. A great practice is to set a reminder in a calendar either on your phone, computer, or in a planning diary to review your BOB contents list annually at minimum. These reminders will keep you on track and spur you into action!
Lastly, there is no time like the present to take action. Why not review your Bug Out Bag today?
Also I’d like to talk a little about how and when to inspect your First Aid Kit (FAK).
For this article, I used a standard industrial FAK.
1. Check for Unsafe/Damaged Products
Check for damaged, soiled, dirty or even partially used products. As a practice, all items should be single use to prevent cross contamination. That means that a tube of ointment that has a re-sealable cap should be considered opened if not contaminated. If this is for home use you can be a little more lenient. Open bottles of eyewash should be thrown out.

2. Check for expiration dates
Many of the items in a first aid kit have a shelf life. The expiration date will be marked on the container or individual package. Items including sprays, ointments, wipes, medicines, eyewash and eyedrops will all have dates. If an outer box does have dates, be sure to check the product inside. Many times like products you are replacing will have different dates. When you mix them it is important to use the old dates first. Product placement and rotation are important. Always put the newer product behind the older. Be especially careful when inspecting the door pouches.

3. Review & Observe the usage and available inventory.
As you check your supplies, pay attention to how much has been used. This will help you plan for the future, avoiding the possibility of running out of a particular item. Good observation can also help you pinpoint the types of injuries that are occurring, possibly helping you to change work or safety processes and creating a healthier and safer workplace.

4. Arrange & organize the product to its appropriate location in the cabinet.
Why are we talking about this now before restock? Every item has its place. Consistency is key to managing and maintaining your supplies. When someone uses the supplies, they will always look in the same spot for that item. It will also help you speed up the inventory process. Know where your supplies are supposed to be and move the items back to their dedicated spot.

For a BOB or vehicle kit you can do the same as above. Make sure anything that has liquid in it is checked. Especially if the kit stays in a hot closet or vehicle trunk. Wipes, petroleum gauze pads, sanitizers, betadine, all these and others should be checked to make sure they are not dried up. Packaging seldom keeps things from drying up for prolonged exposure to heat.
Meds should be replaced often too. Anything is better than nothing but be sure you have a list of priority items to slowly replace and that it actually happens.
Make sure you keep close inventory of items you need to check and figure out a schedule to check. I would suggest at least annually.
Making sure your gear is ready to use at any time is a matter of being organized.
Semper Paratus
Check 6