Thursday, June 30, 2016

Reading Ammo Boxes And Choosing

Ammunition Brand: Ammunition is a branded product made by several different companies. This means the name of the manufacturer is often, but not always, a dominant feature of the label. Many shooters develop a brand preference once they learn which ammunition functions best in their particular firearm, so which brand you buy can be important if you are purchasing a gift for someone else.
Bullet Diameter & Cartridge Name: The diameter of a bullet, or how wide it is across its circular base, is used as a defining feature of the cartridge name to make quick ammo identification easy. Similar calibers are usually grouped together on dealers’ shelves. Bullet diameter is usually represented on a box using one of two measurement systems: Caliber or Millimeters.
Caliber, the more common measurement for ammunition developed in the United States, is a decimal point representation of hundredths of an inch. For example, if a bullet has a 0.38-inch diameter, it would be said to be a .38-caliber bullet. When saying the name out loud, the decimal is left out, “ I would like a box of thirty-eight Special ammo, please.” Sometimes bullet caliber is displayed to two decimal points (.38 Special, .44 Magnum, .45 ACP) or to three decimal points (.223 Remington, .357 Ruger, .327 Federal).
The other measurement system used for bullet width is Millimeters. This tends to be applied to cartridges developed overseas. Bullet diameter in Millimeters can be displayed as a whole number (9 mm, 10 mm) or as a decimal point (7.62 Tokarev, 6.5 Creedmoor).
Most of the modern ammunition available today will be loaded with bullets ranging from the very small .17 Caliber bullets to large .50 Caliber projectiles. Why is the bullet diameter so important? A cartridge with a bullet that is too large for the gun will not fit into its chamber, while a cartridge with a bullet that's too small will rattle around the barrel as it flies down the barrel and produce rotten accuracy. More importantly, loading the wrong cartridge into a gun may cause it to literally explode. There are no approximations when it comes to ammunition. The caliber numbers on the box must match the numbers on the gun exactly.
The full name of the cartridge may, or may not, have more to it than the bullet caliber. For example, the 9 mm Luger cartridge is often shortened to just 9 mm, or the word following the caliber is abbreviated to conserve space on the label. Cartridge names often include the name of the individual who invented it (.475 Linebaugh), the gun company that developed it (.30-.30 Winchester), or a descriptive term (.221 Fireball).
Bullet Weight: In most cases, bullet weight is represented in Grains. This is an archaic unit of measurement that's not commonly used any more. It takes 437.5 Grains to equal an Ounce, and the larger the number of Grains listed on the box, the heavier the bullet will be. Grains can be spelled out completely on a label, or abbreviated (Grain, Gr, gr, gr.). However it's represented, the letters G and R will be in there somewhere. Shooters pay attention to how light or heavy a bullet is because the weight changes the performance down range.

Bullet Style: How a bullet is shaped, and what it's made of, will affect how it behaves when striking an intended target. Far too many bullet style abbreviations are available to list here, especially since manufacturers keep developing new ones. But here are a few common abbreviations used for handgun and rifle ammunition:
- FMJ (Full-Metal Jacket): A lead bullet wrapped, or "jacketed," in a thin covering of copper or brass along the top and sides, leaving the base exposed. Jacketed bullets can have a rounded or flat-nose shape. Copper is soft, but it doesn't melt like lead does at high velocity, so the jacket makes the bullet much stronger and allows it to travel much faster. These bullets are commonly used in practice grade ammunition.
- TMJ (Total-Metal Jacket): The same idea as a Full-Metal Jacket, but the base of the bullet is covered in copper as well.
- JSP (Jacketed-Soft Point): A bullet with the sides jacketed in copper, but the lead nose of the core is left exposed in order to allow the bullet to expand when it hits the target. These tend to be used for hunting.
- SJHP (Semi-Jacketed Hollow Point): The same design as the Jacketed-Soft Point, but a cavity, or "hollow" is cut or molded into the nose of the bullet. The combination of the exposed lead and the hollow point cause the bullet to expand more rapidly. These bullets are commonly used for self-defense and hunting.
- JHP (Jacketed Hollow Point): This is the most popular type of self-defense and hunting bullet on the market. Imagine a Full-Metal Jacket bullet that has a hole drilled in the nose, so that the jacket covers the whole bullet, but there is a cavity in the nose. Several designs are available, all of which are intended to allow the bullet to expand rapidly.
- FRAN (Frangible): A relatively recent addition, these bullets are made of compressed metallic dust. They look like Full-Metal Jacket bullets, but they are supposed to disintegrate back into dust when they hit a solid target. This disintegration is intended to reduce the chances of ricochet or over penetration. These are popular for use at indoor ranges and as training rounds.

Reading a shot gun shell box.

Generally, the first number on the top of the box identifies the gauge of the shells in the box. Gauge is a measurement of the diameter of the shell case. The shotgun gauges manufactured today are: 10, 12, 16, 20, 28 and .410 bore. The larger the number, the smaller the shell diameter. The gauge of the ammunition must match the gauge of the shotgun which can be found on the shotgun barrel. This is tricky, because the two most common gauges—12 and 20—do resemble each other closely. Never place a smaller gauge shell in a larger gauge shotgun. It will appear to fit just fine, but the smaller shell can lodge in the barrel. If a correctly sized shell is then placed in the shotgun and fired, an extremely dangerous barrel rupture will occur.
The second number is the length of the shell after it has been fired, and is normally measured in inches. Most shotguns are chambered for 2¾-inch or 3-inch shells, with some guns being chambered at 3½ inches. Check your gun barrel or owner’s manual to verify what maximum shell length your gun will accommodate. Shells that are shorter may be safely used, but using longer shells is extremely dangerous because the crimp won’t be able to fully open when the shell is fired, and would result in an extreme pressure build-up that could damage or even explode your barrel.
Next, the velocity tells you how fast the shot leaves the muzzle and is usually specified in feet per second (fps). Velocities may range from 1,100 fps to near 1,400 fps. Some boxes of modern ammunition may contain a velocity indicator: “Dr. Eq.” This stands for Dram Equivalent. The first shotshells were loaded with black powder. Black powder volume was originally measured in “drams.”
When companies switched from black powder to smokeless powder, they placed the Dram Equivalent on the box to give the shooter an indication of shot velocity. While less commonly used today, the Dram Equivalent can still give the shooter an idea of the muzzle velocity. This requires knowing the gauge, shot weight and the dram equivalent. An easy-to-use conversion table can be found on the internet. Some shell boxes may show the velocity as “Max.” (maximum) or “MAG.” (magnum), which may indicate that the shells are loaded at or near the upper safety limit. In certain clay target sports there are restrictions on the maximum muzzle velocity permitted. Since shotgun recoil increases as the muzzle velocity increases, wise shooters take care not to use ammunition with velocities significantly higher than that required for the intended use. While a hunter may not mind excessive recoil when firing only a few shells on an upland bird hunt, they may find using that same load to shoot 75 shots on a dove hunt a bit uncomfortable.
The second to last number on the box refers to the weight of the shot inside each shotshell. This may range from ½ ounce to 2 ounces. Most 12-gauge shells contain 1 ounce, 1 1/8-ounce, or 1¼-ounce loads. The standard 20-gauge shell has 7/8 ounce of shot. Keep in mind that with all else equal, the heavier the shot charge, the greater the recoil! Use a shot charge large enough to be effective. Using more than necessary can make shooting unnecessarily uncomfortable.
BIRDSHOT - Shotgun ammunition which uses very small pellets with individual projectiles of less than .24" in diameter are designed to be discharged in quantity from the shotgun. The size of the shot is given as a number or letter--with the larger number the smaller the shot size. It is so named because it is most often used for hunting birds. The finest size generally used is #9 which is approximately .08" in diameter and the largest common size is #2 which is approximately .15"
BUCKSHOT - A type of shotgun ammunition that uses medium-sized to large-sized pellets of .24" in diameter or greater, designed to be discharged in quantity from a shotgun. Generally the larger the pellets, the fewer of them in the casing.
SHOTGUN SLUG - An individual cylindrical projectile designed to be discharged from a shotgun. As a single projectile, slugs must be carefully aimed to be effective.

Size Type Weight Diameter
0000 Buck 82 grains 9.70 mm (0.380")
000½ Buck 76 grains 9.40 mm (0.370")
000 Buck 70 grains 9.14 mm (0.360")
00½ Buck 59 grains 8.60 mm (0.340")
00 Buck 53.8 grains 8.38 mm (0.330")
0 Buck 49 grains 8.13 mm (0.320")
#1½ Buck 44.7 grains 7.90 mm (0.310")
#1 Buck 40.5 grains 7.62 mm (0.300")
#2½ Buck 36.6 grains 7.4 mm (0.290")
#2 Buck 29.4 grains 6.86 mm (0.270")
#3½ Buck 26.3 grains 6.60 mm (0.260")
#3 Buck 23.4 grains 6.35 mm (0.250")
#4 Buck 20.7 grains 6.09 mm (0.240")
FF Waterfowl 18.2 grains 5.84 mm (0.230")
F (or TTT) Waterfowl 16.0 grains 5.59 mm (0.220")
TT Waterfowl 13.9 grains 5.33 mm (0.210")
T Waterfowl 12.0 grains 5.08 mm (0.200")
BBB Bird 10.2 grains 4.82 mm (0.190")
BB Bird 8.50 grains 4.60 mm (0.180")
BB (air gun) Bird 8.10 grains 4.57 mm (0.177")
B Bird 7.40 grains 4.50 mm (0.170")
#1 Bird 6.15 grains 4.10 mm (0.160")
#2 Bird 4.40 grains 3.76 mm (0.150")
#3 Bird 5.07 grains 3.6 mm (0.140")
#4 Bird 3.30 grains 3.28 mm (0.130")
#4½ Bird 2.90 grains 3.18 mm (0.125")
#5 Bird 2.60 grains 3.05 mm (0.120")
#6 Bird 2.00 grains 2.77 mm (0.110")
#7 Bird 1.50 grains 2.50 mm (0.100")
#7½ Bird 1.29 grains 2.39 mm (0.095")
#8 Bird 1.09 grains 2.26 mm (0.090")
#8½ Bird 0.97 grains 2.16 mm (0.085")
#9 Bird 0.75 grains 2.01 mm (0.080")
#10 Pest 0.51 grains 1.80 mm (0.070")
#11 Pest 0.32 grains 1.50 mm (0.060")
#12 Pest 0.19 grains 1.30 mm (0.050")
Dust Pest 0.10 grains or less 1.00 mm (0.040") or less

Learning what ammunition is available and how best to use it is a process that seems endless. There are many caliber and gauge ammo. A little research will teach you a lot quickly. Find out what works well in your guns and for your applications.
Ammo makes me happy!

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wednesday, June 29, 2016

Seeing And Hearing An Attack

What does an attack sound and look like?
"I was in the zone," Jon Alamo recalled. "I wasn't even paying attention — just dancing."
The 22-year-old clothing store sales clerk had arrived at the club “Pulse” at 10:30 p.m. Saturday. About three and a half hours later, the gunshots began and the first of at least 50 people began to die.
Residents of the Delaney Court condos next door to Pulse first heard the shooting about 2:03 a.m. Marlon Massey was watching the movie "Creed" when he heard "pop, pop, pop!" He checked his phone for the time: The shots went on until 2:05 a.m.
A uniformed Orlando Police officer working at the club off-duty had heard gunshots himself and spotted Omar Mateen outside the club. He fired his gun at the 29-year-old one-time security guard from Port St. Lucie, Florida, and two other officers quickly joined in. Mateen was not armed lightly: Police said he had an AR-15 rifle, a handgun and an explosive device.
Undeterred, he re-entered the club.
Inside, those on the dance floor weren't sure if what they heard was just part of the DJ's set.
"Everyone was getting on the floor. ... I thought it was just part of the music, until I saw fire coming out of his gun," patron Rose Feba explained to the Orlando Sentinel.
This is a portion of an article by AP on the Orlando shooting. What can be learned from this and other descriptions of events?
One. In certain situations many people are in condition White. Unaware. Oblivious to what is going on around them. Situational awareness, zero. They were “In the zone”.
I’ve read many articles and books on security. I’ve been through countless government briefings where security is emphasized. None of them talk about being asleep like many of these people were. Read other witnesses of other shootings, such as the Ataturk airport in Turkey yesterday. They all are similar.
I’ve also read some articles that tell us it is impossible and silly to stay in condition Yellow. It’s paranoid and unrealistic.
I was in a grocery store one time when I heard a “pop, pop, pop” sound that caught the attention of everyone in the store. I know what gunfire sounds like. I know it very well. This sounded very much like gunfire but was a little different. I took no chances. I already had been moving toward an exit facing the sound. Then I realized that some pressurized cables had just been popped off of a pressurized soda fountain. There were only 3 hoses and 3 pops. As I was moving toward an exit I had my hand on my concealed weapon waiting for more intell.
When people recognized what the problem was they were visibly relieved. I slipped back into my place in line and no one even noticed I had moved. They were all still standing where they were when the popping went off!
It is possible to stay in Yellow and to move to Orange and back to Yellow again in matter of moments. I experienced it. I wasn’t scarred, or scared, or fearing for my life. I had a plan to get myself out of the kill zone and to defend myself if needed. Once I realized what had actually happened I was able to shelf that plan and go back to Yellow.
Again here are those Cooper Color Conditions:
Condition White
UNAWARE AND UNPREPARED. This is a condition you should try to avoid, as it means you will probably lose a fight. The only time that you’re in condition white is when you’re asleep. And even then, you wouldn’t consider yourself unprepared; you’re just unaware.
If attacked in Condition White, the only thing that may save you is the inadequacy or ineptitude of your attacker. When confronted by something nasty, your reaction will probably be “Oh my! This can’t be happening to me.”
Most sheeple-people spend much of their lives in this state of mind.
Condition Yellow
RELAXED ALERT Yellow means you are aware of what is happening around you, but you do not perceive a potential threat. Your mindset should be prepared to defend yourself if the need arises. Everywhere you go, you should be in Condition Yellow. You should keep a pretty good watch on the people around you, and continuously rate each person’s danger level in your mind.
There is no specific threat situation. Your mindset is that “today could be the day I may have to defend myself”. You are simply aware that the world is a potentially unfriendly place and that you are prepared to defend yourself, if necessary.
You use your eyes and ears. You don’t have to be armed in this state, but if you are armed you should be in Condition Yellow.
You should always be in Yellow whenever you are in unfamiliar surroundings or among people you don’t know.
You can remain in Yellow for long periods, as long as you are able to “Watch your six.” (In aviation 12 o’clock refers to the direction in front of the aircraft’s nose. Six o’clock is the blind spot behind the pilot.)
In Yellow, you are “taking in” surrounding information in a relaxed but alert manner, like a continuous 360 degree radar sweep. As Cooper put it, “I might have to shoot.”
Condition Orange
SPECIFIC ALERT It means that there is a potential threat that has gotten your attention. This can be almost anything and usually results in nothing, at which time you go back to yellow. An example of Condition Orange could be when you spot a firearm under that bulky coat… Instantly, you determine what you’re going to do if he reaches for that gun.
Something is not quite right and has your attention. Your radar has picked up a specific alert. You shift your primary focus to determine if there is a threat (but you do not drop your six). Your mindset shifts to “I may have to shoot that person today”, focusing on the specific target which has caused the escalation in alert status.
In Condition Orange, you set a mental trigger: “If that person does “X”, I will need to stop them”. Your pistol usually remains holstered in this state. Staying in Orange can be a bit of a mental strain, but you can stay in it for as long as you need to. If the threat proves to be nothing, you shift back to Condition Yellow.
Condition Red
FIGHT It means that you are in a lethal mode of mindset and will fight if the circumstances are warranted. In the make-believe scenario, Bulky Coat draws a gun from under his coat. At this point, you implement your action plan that was determined during Condition Orange. This doesn’t always mean fight. If there are too many innocents around or you don’t have the means, your best plan might be to wait and see what happens or even retreat and call the police.
Your mental trigger (established back in Condition Orange) has been tripped. “If ‘X’ happens I will shoot that person”. In short, the Color Code helps you “think” in a fight. As the level of danger increases, your willingness to take certain actions increases.
If you ever do go to Condition Red, the decision to use lethal force has already been made (your “mental trigger” has been tripped).
Some think you can’t stay in Yellow. I know from experience that it’s not that hard. I’ve caught myself in White and mentally slap myself and move immediately into Yellow. It is possible to go from one condition to another in a matter of seconds, but you have to be aware.
Learn what gunfire sounds like. Don’t damage your hearing but go to an outside range and remove your hearing protection for a moment. Listen to the shooting from other bays. Be careful not to do this in a confined space or an indoor range. Gunfire in a building doesn’t always sound the same as an outdoor shooting range. Make sure your children know. Know what people mean when they say that “pop, pop” noise. Most of the time it is rationalized to “fireworks” or “popping bags or bubble wrap”. Don’t be stupid. I’m not saying jump at every book that falls on the floor, but be realistic and assume the worst while hoping for the best. Usually it ends up being the best. But in having a plan and a defense, you lessen the chance that you’ll be a victim. Believe me, no one will notice. Many years ago in Jr. High I had a teacher who had seen a lot of combat in Viet Nam. Kids would drop books on the floor just to see him hit the deck. He was conditioned that way to save his life. I loved that old veteran.
I think a more controlled conditioning is what being in Yellow can be. We are not in a combat zone but at any time we can be in a kill zone.
Two. We must come to grips that active shooters can happen anywhere at any time. Be very careful about wearing headphones in public. I just would not do it. Not just for the active shooter scenario but for safety. Not being able hear a car coming up on you can get you killed. If you feel you just have to be listening to something then perhaps only one side in one ear so that you can still hear. I think it’s best to just not use headphones in public.
Do you remember the video of those running from the collapse of the World Trade Centers on 9-11? Do you remember the look on their faces and the look in their eyes? That was fear. Fear is not our enemy.
Gavin De Becker wrote an important book titled: “The Gift of Fear” (I highly recommend!)
He talks about fear in a real sense. He treats fear as a survival signal.
“When you accept the survival signal as a welcome message and quickly evaluate the environment or situation, fear stops in an instant. Thus, trusting intuition is the exact opposite of living in fear…While few would argue that extended, unanswered fear is destructive, millions choose to stay there. They may have forgotten or never learned that fear is not an emotion like sadness or happiness, either of which might last a long while. It is not a state, like anxiety. True fear is a survival signal that sounds only in the presence of danger, yet unwarranted fear has assumed a power over us that it holds over no other creature on earth.”
Fear is a chain reaction in the brain that starts with a stressful stimulus and ends with the release of chemicals that cause a racing heart, fast breathing and energized muscles, among other things, also known as the fight-or-flight response.
De Becker lists two rules about fear that if you accept them, they can improve your use of fear, reduce its frequency and transform your experience of life.
Rule #1. The very fact you fear something is solid evidence that it is not happening.
Rule #2. What you fear is rarely what you think you fear, it is what you link to fear.
Rule #1 is quite true. How many times have you lied there in bed thinking about what would happen if someone was standing over your bed right now with a gun. Guess what, the thought is precisely all the evidence you need to know that very thing you fear is NOT happening.
The second rule is one that needs explanation. His example is the fear of getting up and addressing five hundred people at an annual convention. The fear is not just the fear of embarrassment, it’s linked to the fear of being perceived as incompetent, which is linked to the fear of loss of employment, loss of home, loss of family, your ability to contribute to society, your value, in short, your identity and your life.
When you truly analyze what it is you fear, it can help alleviate that fear or let you know exactly what you need to change to alleviate it.
Being prepared is using fear to your advantage. It’s also planning for what might happen, but probably won’t.
Situational awareness is something I’ve written about for many years. It’s always pertinent information that each of us can learn, and teach to our families.
The mass shootings and bombings are evidence that this should be learned and used to prevent death and injury. These same events are also evidence that we need to defend ourselves and no agency, police department, or laws will keep us safe. We must provide our own safety.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Preparing For An Active Shooter Event

There are many events that have changed how law enforcement (LE) operates. Some are debacles that should never be repeated, Waco and Ruby Ridge. Some have changed weapons, caliber, and equipment, Miami and North Hollywood. Others have changed how shooter events are handled, Columbine, Mumbai, and India. Most of these famous firefights have little to teach the concealed carrier. Except if you are going into a firefight, bring a rifle. And bring several friends with rifles.
There was, a few years ago in 2014, a rampage in Las Vegas. A married couple ambushed two police officers in a restaurant and killed them. They then moved across the street to a Wal-mart. There, the man shot into the ceiling and told people to get out and that this is a revolution and that the police are on the way.
That's when 31-year-old customer, Joseph Wilcox, who was standing near the checkout area with a friend, pulled out his legally registered pistol and told his friend he was going to confront the suspect.
He immediately and heroically moved into a position. Unfortunately, he didn't realize Amanda was with Jerad.
Amanda shot him in the ribs, where he immediately collapsed. Wilcox didn't fire off any shots at either of the suspects.
This is a tragic story. The couple ended up killing themselves in the Wal-mart. Joseph Wilcox is heroic because he thought little of himself, but wanted to protect others.
What we learn from this is that if you are ever in a situation like this with active shooters, be very careful how you operate. Don’t just jump in without observing from concealment or cover. Get as many people out as you can. Then, to be honest, get out yourself! But if you feel the shooter will take others lives and that you must act, do it with intell about what’s going on. The Army has an acronym to help you. It is SALUTE which stands for:
Size. How many are in the enemy force?
Activity. What is the enemy doing?
Location. Where is the enemy?
Unit. Who is the enemy?
Time. When did you observe the enemy?
Equipment. What equipment, weapons does the enemy have?
With this information, which can be gathered quickly, you can plan a better response. Who knows who Mr Wilcox saved by engaging the enemy? Did civilians get away? Were police able to get in positon because of his action? I don’t know, but he could have saved others with his life.
What we as concealed carriers can learn from these shootings that care must be taken defending yourself and others. We are the responsible ones. We care who gets hurt. The shooters don’t have that burden. We must think about what is going on around us. We must assess what our chances for success are to safely take out a shooter. Most of the time I would say leave that to the professionals. Law enforcement has the training and the experience for this type of situation. But if they are not on scene yet, do you let a nut job just continue killing?
Take care to not be perceived as one of the shooters. If police arrive they can only make a judgement by what they see. So be aware of this. Make sure you are not part of the problem and get yourself shot. Also, if I am with family members that changes my response dramatically.
The government will teach “Run, Hide, Fight” which is not bad advice and it is similar to a new active shooter approach which is “Avoid, Deny, Defend.” I think I like the wording of this training a little better even though it is the same advice and training.
Avoid is in essence run. Get as far away from the shooter as possible. Even if you have to hide, such as locking the shooter out. If these aren’t possible defend yourself by confronting the shooter directly with force. If there are several of you all the better.
There are some statistics about active shooter events of the last decade that give some insight.
Active shooter locations have been 40% in businesses. 29% have been at schools. 19% are outdoors and 12% are in other places.
98% of the shooters have been alone. 96% are male. 40% of the time the shooter kills himself during the incident.
Defending looks better all the time. Please don’t think I am advising you to skip the first two steps just because you are armed. Absolutely NOT! Get out of the kill zone! Evacuate! In the words of our illustrious government, “Run! Hide!” Take as many with you as you can. If possible, and you were able to gather some intell, contact police about the shooters. If you were able to observe the shooter take note of how they are dressed, how many shooters there are, what weapons you can see, do they have armor, anything else that might be important to LE.
But if you must defend, do it intelligently. Don’t show your hand until you have to. Use cover and concealment. Remember to safeguard others who are in your line of fire. Use angles correctly. You have the element of surprise, the shooter thinks he is unopposed. As soon as can, conceal your weapon so you won’t be mistaken for a shooter. Render medical attention to others if you can safely do so. Observe if there are witnesses that may have been able to watch your defense incident. Above all, don’t overestimate that the shooter is down and out. Get out of there as soon as possible and contact LE.
Being armed is a big responsibility but remember you are not duty bound to take on a shooter. Only under certain circumstances should you attempt to.
Playing out scenarios in your mind can give you that defensive mindset. Active shooter events are so uncommon the chances are in your favor that you will never have to use this information. But these events are also so random that you could find one unfolding right before you. Be prepared.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Porter Rockwell's Birthday

Today is Owen Porter Rockwell’s 203rd birthday. Much of what has been written about Porter Rockwell was written by anti-Mormons and enemies of the Church. Port did not read or write so he could not write about himself or keep a journal. Those against the Church seem to be against anything and everything to do with the Church. It goes along with my theory that most who leave the Church, can’t leave the Church alone. Just as the worst enemies of the righteous Nephites were the Lamanites who were Nephites! Things never change.
After Porter died in 1878 the Salt Lake Tribune wrote some nasty things about Port. Yet Apostles and Prophets had mostly good to say about him. Who do you believe? I choose to believe those who actually knew him and knew him well. The Salt Lake Tribune is still the rag it’s always been and it still paints the Church in the worst possible light.

At Porter’s funeral the young Apostle Joseph F. Smith, son of Hyrum Smith and nephew of the Prophet Joseph Smith, painted a very different picture of Porter when he said, “He had his little faults, but Porter’s life on earth, taken altogether, was one worthy of example, and reflected honor upon the Church. Through all the trials he has never once forgotten his obligations to his brethren and his God.”

Porter Rockwell at times resorted to violence. We know of approximately twenty-four men who lost their lives to his gun. In the majority of these instances, he was bringing outlaws to justice in his lawfully appointed role as deputy marshal. In other cases he was defending his own life. After dispatching his would-be murderers, Rockwell always dutifully turned himself in to be tried in the appropriate court of law. For each of these trials he was exonerated as having acted in self-defense.

Porter Rockwell was connected to the founding of the Church since the beginning. As the ninth person to be baptized into the Church on April 6, 1830, no one was more directly involved in the growth of the Church in its infancy than Porter Rockwell, and the life he led was crucial to its survival.
Porter was the man who rowed Joseph Smith across the river on the night that he hoped to find refuge in the West, and it was Porter who rowed him back across the river to face his death at Carthage.
It was Porter who served as the lead scout for the original Brigham Young wagon train when it first entered the Great Salt Lake valley. Porter was one of those who successfully harassed the invading Johnston’s army, slowing their arrival to the outskirts of Salt Lake City long enough that the residents could abandon their homes in preparation for a final war. These are just a handful of the meaningful moments that Porter Rockwell participated in throughout the early history of the Church.

Although more than seven years younger than Joseph Smith, Porter Rockwell was great friends with Joseph from childhood. Porter told Joseph Smith III after his father’s death that “they have killed the only friend I have.” Joseph Smith had no more loyal and devoted friend and defender than Porter Rockwell. He depended on him for his life.
Porter was extremely skilled in handling firearms. After his home was literally torn apart by mobs (the roof, the walls, and the floorboards torn apart by marauders on horseback while his terrified wife stood looking on), Porter resolved that he would never be unarmed again, and he went into the woods to practice his shooting skills until no one was his equal with a weapon.
He was relatively short – 5’6″ tall, which was ordinary for the day even though short by today’s standards. He was very powerfully built with muscular arms and chest. Porter wore his hair and beard long and uncut for a reason. After a very difficult imprisonment on false charges, Joseph Smith blessed him that as long as he didn’t cut his hair, no bullet or knife could harm him. Porter believed this to be a literal blessing, which he put to the test on numerous occasions. That is why he is often called a “modern-day Sampson.”
There is much to admire in Porter Rockwell. There are also events that make us uncomfortable.
In my estimation he was a defender of the faith. Many in and out of the Church are uncomfortable with Porter Rockwell. It is my guess that those who are uncomfortable with him are uncomfortable with violence. Some people are squeamish with any type of contention and are equally squeamish with violence. I’m not saying we should like violence and contention but like Porter, we should stand and defend and not shrink. Owen Porter Rockwell defended the Prophet at a time when some of his friends would not. He defended the Church to the very end. I choose to remember him with reverence and honor.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

A Green Berets EDC

Several years ago I served in the LDS Church as a Branch President. While serving there I got to know some wonderful people. The Branch was as big as any Ward, in fact we were just made a District and so became a Branch after being a Ward for several years. Anyway, this particular Branch is a transient one. Being near a military base we had people come and go a lot. While there I met a great guy, George, who is a retired Green Beret. With my military background he and I got along very well. He is a Special Forces vet who spent time in Viet Nam, and just about every South American country you can think of. He spent a considerable amount of time in Panama and taught at the Army’s Jungle Warfare School down there. He and I talked a lot and I picked his brain on several occasions about being prepared and trained.
He had a philosophy he lived by that I’d like to share with you. These are his EDC recommendations.
A Green Beret’s EDC
1. Always Carry
One thing we talked about a lot was concealed carry. I had started carrying before it was legal in the mid 1980’s. I finally decided to become an honest person and became licensed. George had carried a gun for defense for most of his life, on and off duty.
He told me over and over again, “You must always have a weapon. I have seen people who were subjugated to horrible things because they were not armed. Don’t be fooled by those who want to make you safe.” That was one of the reasons I had decided a long time ago to have a weapon at my disposal always.
Do not be fooled.
2. Carry A Spare Magazine
Depending on your caliber, keep at least 1 spare magazine loaded with hollowpoints. Do not ever carry without a round in the chamber. Do whatever you must do to be safe with yourself and with others. Get whatever training, practice whatever drills, do whatever it takes to be safe and to carry with a round in the chamber. I cannot emphasize enough, so I am repeating it a third time, carry with one in the chamber. Like “Hoot” Gibson in the movie “Blackhawk Down” who said the line “This is my safety, sir!” meaning his finger, trigger discipline is safer than any mechanical safety on a weapon. Be dangerous to the enemy, do not make collateral damage.
Carry your weapon in a good holster and a mag pouch. This will make you safe and deadly.
3. Flashlight
Being able to see in low light conditions and dark is imperative. You will use this for everything. Target identification is most important so having a light, well maintained, was a big recommendation. There are many good lights on the market. They have become less expensive than they used to be. I like tactical LED lights of at least 200 lumens.
4. Tools
There are many ways to carry tools. Some use the keychain tools that are out there, and others use a multi-tool. If you do not use a multi-tool carry a good folder knife. I would recommend a Gerber or Leatherman multi-tool. I’ve carried both of these brands and can attest to their quality. Do not use them if you have access to other tools. Keep your tools clean, dry, and serviceable. You want your EDC tools to be as immaculate as possible.
5.Fire maker
George carries a Zippo lighter. He’s from a generation of military that used Zippos a lot for tobacco use. I carry a Fire Steel and striker. The point is, carry something to make fire. There are “peanut” size lighters out there and other small devices. Whatever you decide to carry be proficient with it. Use it and know its limitations or your limitations with it. Practice fire making regularly. I make a small fire in my charcoal grill at least every 3 months. We heat our home with wood so during the winter months I may make a fire every day.
6. Clothing
Being in the military for 30 years and then teaching on Army bases you get used to dressing a certain way. George recommends cargo pants for everything! I’m trying to figure out how to wear black cargo pants with a suit coat and a white shirt and tie for being prepared at church! He also recommends carrying in your vehicle gloves (shooting gloves). I like Mechanix brand gloves because they give good dexterity and are reasonably priced. Sometimes I use golf gloves when I can find them on sale. Flyers gloves (nomex) are great but expensive. George recommends some kind of hat or head gear. I like shemaghs. They are very versatile as head gear or other configurations. I like boonie hats also.
Loose fitting clothing is easy to move in and breaks up the outline of your body. Remember that if you need to blend in, removing or donning headgear can help disguise you quickly. Remember if you need to not be found to change your appearance quickly. Use subdued colors in your clothing choice to blend. Avoid camo clothing unless you will be in a wilderness setting. Make sure to blend into your environment whether it be urban or wilderness.
Footwear is very important especially if you are travelling on foot. Good, broken in boots are what George recommends. Color and style vary. As do quality. Find some boots that work well for you and keep them in your vehicle if it is not appropriate to wear them. Make sure your footwear is sturdy. I live in the Southwest. Rocks and cactus are pretty plentiful. Boots that can handle that terrain are what I need. Boots are a good choice over running shoes, because they support your ankles and will hold up well.
Most people don’t think much about socks. Good socks make a huge difference. George said that when moving on foot in combat his commanders would make sure they had at least one spare pair of socks. If you get your boots wet or have been walking for a long distance, just changing your socks makes a big difference in caring for your feet. I would recommend a good foot powder too.
Keep a hoodie and a raincoat in your vehicle
7. Miscellaneous
Safety pins – pinned in hats, clothes
Paracord – bracelets, 10 to 20 feet
TP – toilet paper for the obvious, and for fire starting, etc
Cash – George likes $100 and he never touches it. You might want to keep it in a place other than where you normally keep money.
Compass – A decent, durable one
Glasses – If you wear glasses have a basic fix kit and some super glue
A small backpack to keep it in.
I like George’s list. I think I would add a few things to it.
First aid kit, water, water filter
My get home bag is similar to George’s items. Here’s what I carry in every vehicle.

Water- 3 gls (separate from bag)
Emergency poncho
Emergency blanket
Nylon spork
Can opener
1 Roll of TP
Pepper spray
Feminine supplies
Level 1 first aid kit
Water straw filter
550 paracord
Light stick
Firestarting kit: Matches, striker and sparker, Fire starter
Fishing kit: Bobs, line, bait, hooks
Leather gloves
N95 Dust mask
Shower cap
Chap stick
Hand lotion
Toothbrush, toothpaste
Liquid soap
Pack of baby wipes (change often-goes dry)
Camelbak bladder
Sun block
2 sets of hand warmers
1 Trash bag
Tube tent
“Yard light” recharger


Can of tuna
Tuna pouch
MRE crackers
1 pac Jerky
2 Freezedried meals
2 Spam pacs
3 Mylar rice meals
2 Gatorade powder pacs

Make sure food is in separate zip-locs

Being prepared is a life-long process. Being preparedness minded is a mindset that is developed over time. Don’t over think things and don’t think you can be prepared for all things. Your goal is to be prepared for most things and have training and skills to make up for and improvise where you lack.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Monday, June 27, 2016

Fighting From/With A Vehicle

Everyone has their own strategy when it comes to vehicle gun fighting. Most of it is based on television and has no sense of reality. There is a scene in the 1980’s sci-fi movie “E.T. the Extraterrestrial” where Elliot tells his brothers friends about ET and how they need to get him back to his ship. One of the friends says “Can’t he just beam up?” and Elliot says, “This is reality Greg!” Well when it comes to shooting, keep it real.

Most people have never fired into a vehicle or out of a vehicle that was either in motion or sitting still. So they have no context of lead, trail, bullet deformation, windshield penetration, or the pressure disorientation often associated with actually firing a firearm in a confined space. Others spend countless hours focusing on fast draw techniques and sniper type precision with their handgun. I am not saying that enhancing your draw and marksmanship are not important because they are critical. However there may be other tactical priorities.
I am a firm believer that when it comes to violence, deadly force situations or any high stress encounters the simpler the better. Your focus should be on gross motor skills as opposed to fine motor skills. In my mind people greatly over think the whole adversarial dynamic.
A fight is an altercation which involves two or more people generally one with bad intentions.
A gun fight is nothing but a fight that involves a gun. Vehicle gun fighting is a fight which involves at least one gun and a least one vehicle. The objective is the same. Make the bad guy stop trying to fight you or hurt you.
You generally have three choices. 1. Let the bad guy impose his or her will on you, your family or your client until they get tired or decide to move on. That strategy usually doesn’t work out well for the people being assaulted. 2. You can fight. 3. You can flee.
However in the context of deadly force encounters here are some critical things to consider. They don’t require you to be a ninja or advanced gun fighter but may offer you some defensive options. Action will generally beat reaction. USAF Colonel and famed Military Strategist John Boyd developed a concept he called the OODA loop (Observe, Orient, Decide and Act) which describes a person’s decision making process particularly under combat stress.
Common layman interpretation, you see something bad, you say “oh crud,” and then you man up or start crying. So if you notice someone approaching with a gun, you are already behind the curve no matter how fast your draw or how accurate a marksman you may be. If your firearm is anywhere other than in your hand at that precise moment, you are already significantly disadvantaged no matter how well you shoot through glass.
In close quarter battle (CQB) movement is your friend. It buys you time and gives you options.
Time, Space and Distance and its impact on Marksmanship Fighting If a perpetrator is directly in front of my vehicle and threatening me with severe bodily harm or death, I am going to drive into, around or over him. When you drive directly toward your adversary with the gun, the adversary’s self-preservation instincts starts to take over. This typically adversely impacts their marksmanship skills as their focus shifts from shooting you to not getting hit. Either threat neutralized or escape accomplished.
Something to consider with your own vehicle: from the front of my Ranger to the driver’s seat is approximately 5 feet. The overall length of my truck is approximately 15 feet. If I put my truck in reverse and back up one truck length the armed adversary is now 25 ft. away from me. Most untrained people with handguns generally don’t shoot well over 21 feet and particularly at things which are moving. If I back up two vehicle lengths I am now 40 feet from my adversary; three truck lengths 55 feet.
Escape the kill zone, don’t try and shoot your way out unless your vehicle is disabled. Even if you have additional armed passengers the driver’s priority is still the same, escape the kill zone. Everyone has their own strategy and no two encounters will ever be the same. Bottom line is the situation should always dictate your tactics, although escaping is generally a universally accepted principle.
Hope is not a strategy. So anytime you are stopped, stay aware and be prepared to escape.
Vehicle Gun Fighting Priorities:
It is more important to not get shot than to shoot. Shooting is a bonus.
An escape beats an encounter every time.
Keep hitting the bad guy hard until they stop being a threat.
Largest projectile generally causes more damage. A 3,000 pound vehicle, generally causes more damage than a 115 – 230 grain bullet.
Most people can hold a steering wheel with one hand and drive while shifting with the other, most can’t shoot and drive.
Most people drive better with one hand, than they shoot with one hand.
Most people don’t shoot well while they are driving or drive well while they are shooting.
Handguns generally don’t stop cars. Cars usually stop adversaries with handguns.
Under stress use the tool that gives you the best margin of error. Vehicles give you more margin of error than handguns.
The most important word in vehicle gun fighting is vehicle. Let your vehicle do the fighting.
The Army teaches “Shoot, Move, Communicate”. I say in this situation, just move!

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Striker Fired Versus Hammer Fired

Which do you prefer? Some people own a gun but are not sure about the firing mechanism in that gun. There are generally two types of semi-auto pistols, a striker fired action or a hammer fired action.
Striker fired mechanisms tend to have fewer parts than hammer fired mechanisms and are therefore simpler. However, they take up a bit more room. This is why firearms that don't have bolts, such as revolvers, use a hammer-fired action. Revolvers and many types of single-shot action firearms generally don't have the room to accommodate a striker mechanism.

Strikers are commonly found in many modern semi-automatic pistols, bolt action weapons and shotguns. In fact, the first striker fired weapon invented was a shotgun invented by Daniel LeFever in 1878. Striker fired pistols started becoming popular in the 1980s, when Glock started using them in their pistols. However, it must be noted that Glock weren't the first to use it on pistols: John Browing used it in the .25 caliber Model N pistol and the H&K P7 is striker fired as well. Nevertheless, once Glock started becoming popular, other manufacturers also started using the same idea on a larger scale and now you have several pistol models, such as Smith & Wesson M&P, Springfield XD, Ruger SR9, etc. There are some famous pistol models that use a hammer fired mechanism instead. Examples include the Colt M1911, Browning Hi-Power, Beretta M9 etc.

A striker fired mechanism doesn't have an exposed hammer, so it cannot get caught in clothing, shrubs etc. The fact that it has fewer parts means easier maintenance as well. Another positive is that it has a consistent trigger pull for every shot in contrast to double action/single action hammer fired mechanisms. These have a trigger pull force that is different depending on whether the firearm is working in single action mode or double action mode. Striker fired mechanisms generally have a consistent trigger reset as well.

On the other hand, if there is a malfunction on a striker fired weapon because the primer didn't detonate, the only option is to eject the cartridge and try the next one. With a hammer fired firearm, it may be possible to try again on the same cartridge (on models that provide this second-strike capability). Hammer fired guns also generally impact primers harder than strikers do, thereby giving a better chance to detonate them. It is for these reasons that many military forces prefer hammer fired weapons. For example, the US military's choices of weapons: Colt M1911 pistol, Beretta M9 pistol, M1 Garand, M14 rifle, M16 rifle, M4 carbine etc. are all hammer-fired.
• Residue can’t easily get between the hammer and firing pin
• Consistent Trigger Pull
• No hammer to snag on draw
• Simpler Operation
• Not as many parts
• Not easy to decock
• (In most cases) No re-strike capability
Exposed Hammer:
• (in most cases) Allows for the option of single or double action function
• (in DA or DA/SA designs) Allows for re-strike on a stubborn primer
• Easy visual confirmation of the state of the gun
• (in SAO designs) can be used hammer down as an improvised safety
• Can have better trigger feel than a striker fired gun
• DA/SA designs have a long, heavy pull followed by short light pulls, this is disconcerting to some
• Residue can get between the hammer and firing pin, preventing discharge
• One more thing to potentially snag on clothing or the environment during draw or regular carry
• Typically have a higher bore axis than striker fired, this can lead to more prominent muzzle flip
So, now that you have a better understanding of the two firing mechanisms which one is better? You will have to find out for yourself.
I have both kind in my collection. I’ve found that if it is a good gun, it doesn’t matter which mechanism it has, it still is a good gun. I have a friend who has both also. He says when he’s shooting bad with one type he switches to the other and his shooting improves. So he goes back and forth between the two. I like the concealability of no external hammer. But I don’t mind exposed hammers and revolvers for other things. I think I end up with striker fired guns for concealed carry and hammer for home defense. I’m not that particular but maybe I’m not a real fanatic about MOA. If I can shoot well enough to stop the threat, that works for me. Now, don’t think I think that 6 inch groups are ok, I just don’t worry so much if I have a 3 inch group.
Like most things gun, you must find out for yourself.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Say what? Hearing Protection

First let me say that I take hearing protection very serious. I have worked for many years around flightlines around the world. Jet engines produce a lot of noise! I have my hearing checked every year and you should too. If you operate machinery, chain saws, or are around lots of noise (like shooting) please consider protecting your hearing. It has been said that 1 in every 10 Americans have hearing loss that affects their ability to understand normal speech. Hearing loss is annoying and difficult to live with. Use proper hearing protection when you shoot a firearm. Shooting is loud enough to cause permanent hearing loss.
Sound levels are represented in decibels, the increase in sound intensity is expressed in a logarithmic scale. The softest audible sound—near total silence—is represented as 0 dB. A sound 10 times more powerful is 10 dB. A sound 100 times more powerful than near total silence is 20 dB. A sound 1,000 times more powerful than near total silence is 30 dB. This means a change in volume from 150 dB to 140 dB is a more significant reduction in noise intensity than reducing 50 dB to 40 dB.
To better understand how effective protection is, it’s best to reduce its NR rating by 50% and then subtract that number from the decibel level you’ll be working around. For example, if you’re practicing with a .22-calibre rifle that fires off at 140dB and you’re using earplugs with an NR rating of 32, your equation will look like this…
32dB / 2 = 16dB
140dB – 16dB = 124dB
124dB = A much safer sound for your ears.
It’s easy to remember: higher ratings mean less noise.
To clarify how loud a sound measured in decibels can be, it’s helpful to have some everyday sound comparisons to work with. Normal conversation occurs at 60 dB. Lawn mowers run at 90 dB, a jet engine at 140 dB, and the noise on a rocket pad during launch pushes the top end of the scale at 180 dB. So where does gunfire land in the lineup? When a gun goes off, the report slams into bare eardrums at 140 dB or more. Some don’t believe a gun is as loud as a jet engine. The difference is duration. They are about the same intensity, but a gun report lasts a fraction of a second.
So what level of sound intensity is too loud for the human ear? Most experts agree you would have to be exposed to eight continuous hours of noise at 85 dB to cause permanent hearing loss, but sound spikes of 130 dB or more can cause permanent damage instantly.
The answer is ear muffs or ear plugs. Many years ago I worked on a flightline that had T37 aircraft. The T-37 has a very high pitch whine in its engine sound. It would be close to 138 dB. It wasn’t the intensity of this aircraft, it was the pitch! We would wear ear plugs AND earmuffs!
So what should you look for in your ear protection? The NRR (noise reduction rate) on the packaging should read 21 dB to 30 dB.
But if guns make 140 dB of noise, how is a 30 dB plug going to help? First, the noise tends to travel forward of the muzzle, so the shooter’s ears are not always hit by as much noise as the gun produces. This does not mean the level of sound is safe, only reduced. Second, the purpose of hearing protection devices is not to eliminate sound, but to reduce the impact to a level that does not cause lasting damage. In short, a plethora of scientific studies conducted over many years show hearing protection works, and it works at the sound-muffling levels common devices provide.
With hearing protection so high on the must-have list these days, most shooting ranges will have some form of hearing protection on hand for their customers. Hardware stores and gun stores also have a variety of options in stock. The cheapest form of hearing protection at pennies apiece are the disposable foam earplugs, which usually provide somewhere between 25-31 dB of hearing protection. Reusable rubber-type plugs are also available.
The next step up from ear plugs are the ear-protecting muffs, which have the advantage of being reusable for years. The basic clamp-over-the-ear units provide the same 25-31 dB levels of hearing protection as the foam plugs. A popular option in really noisy areas like the indoor ranges is to use both plugs and muffs. This is a good idea, but understand the limitations of this system. A 30 dB plug and a 30 dB muff together do not provide a cumulative 60 dB of hearing protection. Instead, they each act as a separate barrier the sound must travel through successively. Hearing protection is improved, but not to as high a level as one might think.
Finally, there are electronically-enhanced hearing protection devices, including specialized hearing aid/earplug combinations, and earmuffs fitted with external microphones and internal speakers. The sound system in electronic muffs allows the user to hear surrounding sounds at normal levels, or even louder than normal. When a dangerously loud sound is detected by the electronics, the speakers to the ears are deactivated until the noise reaches a safe level again. These, of course, are more expensive than conventional muffs and plugs.
Hearing protection devices, such as earplugs, should be seen as a safety standard when shooting. So it’s best to find some that fit well, otherwise you might end up missing the mark in more ways than one. It is worth it to pay a few more bucks to get the best hearing protection for shooting as possible, for both your comfort and safety.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Ambush! What We Learn From Tragedy

The following is from the website “The Tactical Wire” and was published near the 40th anniversary of the shootout. The post is by Claude Werner and was posted 25 June, 2015. His blog is The Tactical Professor
Copyright 2008-2016 The Tactical Wire. All rights reserved

“The Pine Ridge Shootout – 1975

On June 26, 1975, FBI Special Agents Ronald Williams and Jack Coler were murdered on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. While attempting to serve a Federal arrest warrant, a massive gun battle ensued. The Agents' cars were hit with 125 bullets and they were severely wounded early on in the gunfight.

Agent Williams had pursued a vehicle he believed contained the subject of the warrant. Agent Coler, who was nearby, came to assist. Only a few seconds into the pursuit, the subject vehicle came to a stop. Agent Williams radioed that the vehicle had stopped and the occupants had dismounted with weapons. The Agents' vehicles then came under fire not only from the pursued vehicle's occupants but from nearby houses, called the Jumping Bull Compound.

Upon hearing Agent Williams' transmission, FBI Agent Gary Adams drove to assist, however, he was 12 miles away. Williams called over the radio that both he and Coler had been hit. Gunfire could be heard in the background. That was his last transmission. Testimony indicated that persons from a nearby tent encampment heard the firing, came to the scene, and also began shooting at the agents. Later testimony indicated that at least seven persons fired at Williams and Coler.

Upon arriving, Agent Adams, joined by Police Officers of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, came under rifle fire. Their tires were shot out and because of the fire they were unable to reach Agents Williams and Coler for several hours.

Agents Williams and Coler were hit early in the fusillade and were only able to fire five rounds in return. Agent Coler's handgun was fired once and Agent Williams had fired his handgun twice. Agent Coler had two long guns in his vehicle, each of which had been fired once.

Agent Coler had been hit in the arm, which was nearly severed. This wound was sustained while retrieving his long guns from the trunk of his car. His arm had been wrapped with a makeshift tourniquet by Agent Williams. Agent Williams was wounded in his left arm, side, and foot.

Once Agents Williams and Coler were no longer able to fight, the three principal shooters walked to the agents' cars. Those individuals were Leonard Peltier, Robert Robideau, and Darrelle Butler. Peltier had been in the pursued vehicle, while Robideau and Butler had come from the nearby tent encampment. Peltier was not the subject of the warrant Agents Williams and Coler were trying to serve. However, he was wanted on a separate warrant for Unlawful Flight to Avoid Prosecution (UFAP) for the Attempted Murder of an off-duty police officer in Milwaukee. His presence on the Reservation was unknown to Williams and Coler.

There was no eyewitness testimony as to the exact events at the agents' cars. Both Agents were executed at close range with an AR-15 rifle. Agent Williams was shot in the head, killing him instantly. A defensive wound on his right hand indicated he had put his hand up in front of his face before the shot was fired. Agent Coler was viciously shot twice in the head while lying on the ground, unconscious or near unconscious.

Leonard Peltier fled to Canada, but was eventually captured by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and extradited to the United States. On April 18, 1977, he was found guilty of the first-degree murders of Williams and Coler. On June 1, 1977, Chief U.S. District Judge Paul Benson sentenced Peltier to two consecutive life terms for the murders. All his appeals have been rejected.”

I posted the entire story of the tragic Pine Ridge shooting because there is much we can learn from this incident. I know law enforcement (LE) uses this for training of what not to do. Most civilians won’t be put in a situation like this, but we can still learn combat driving tactics to get out of a situation like this.
You have to always be wary of driving or walking into an ambush. One of the worst situations you can be in is an ambush from simultaneous multiple directions. It’s hard to fight against. Really the only way to get out of this situation is retreat very fast. This is not something the average soldier or LE officer is wired for. We need to understand that retreat is a maneuver that can save you. It is seldom used in training but should always be an option.
Driving out of the kill zone is the only way to survive, especially if rifle rounds are being used. A vehicle has very little cover unless it is armored with plating.
In training I was put in a similar situation. Lucky for me I had not penetrated the kill zone all the way. They implemented the ambush too soon. There was no one behind me. Out of fear I instinctively threw the car in reverse and floored it. I should have executed a J turn but in my, what I later described as “controlled panic”, I just wanted out of there. We were using paintball and it sounded similar to live fire rounds hitting the vehicle. It was not fun to get hit by about 30 rounds by the time I was out of range.
In a real world situation if you can’t drive out your only chance is to get out. We implemented some egress drills where if you are with a team someone lays down suppressive fire while the others move away and toward cover if possible. Then a team member gives the same cover to the suppressive member and he retreats. We did it with and without injuries to ourselves or hauling another member out. I would much rather only worry about myself. One drill that we only survived once, was a two man team with one injured. The successful attempt was due to accurate suppressive fire that actually hit two attackers. I don’t know if we would have survived any other way. Being prepared to drag someone out is something that should be practiced. At that time we were all in out early 20’s and in pretty good shape. Add 20 years and 60 pounds to everyone and it may be impossible. Being dressed properly would help. Sandals and shorts may not be a good idea all the time.
In the Pine Ridge shootout “being saved” never happened because of the situation. The backup was there but pinned down. The agents also were hit with a well-executed ambush which accounts for their not returned very much fire. Backup did no good other than keeping suppressive fire coming their way keeping those rounds from going to the doomed agents.
During an ambush you need to think “Is retreat possible?” Then be prepared for egress if you can’t drive out. Never giving up is also something that needs to be thought out. As soon as you give up it’s over.
If you even think you’re going to need more firepower have it handy. Fighting your way to your rifle is a nice thing to say to emphasize the need for a rifle, but I’m not sure it’s very real.
Coler’s trunk was accessed. As soon as you open that trunk, you have targeted yourself. The same thing happened to Gordon McNeil in The Miami Massacre 11 years after Pine Ridge. If the shooting starts and you are not an arm’s reach from your rifle, get used to fighting with your side arm. This is why it is emphasized so heavily to always be near your rifle in the military.
Training only at 0 to 15 feet is bad idea. You should know how your handgun shoots at 25 or even 50 yards. Shooting prone is safer and easier. If possible getting out of the vehicle, using it for some cover and shooting prone may be a good defense.
Medical training is also something we learn we should have from this shooting. In this situation a hospital was several minutes away. With Williams life threatening wounds Coler needed to be able to give first aid. It looks like he tried to help Williams with a tourniquet. It would be good to have a good first aid kit close and the training to work on someone else or yourself. If the attack stopped and he was able to put on an effective tourniquet, Coler may have been able to save his partner. Knowing how to treat yourself with one hand is something that should be practiced a bit before actually having to do it. Maybe practice on yourself using water as a blood substitute to simulate how being bloody would make treating yourself that much harder.
If we’re talking about lots of work with your handgun then you need to know an honest understanding of your limits with your gun. Practice whatever is needed to increase your effectiveness with your handgun. Train realistically. All those people standing there in a weaver shooting 25 feet at paper will think your nuts. But you will be better prepared if the unthinkable ever happens.
I’ll be the first to say the above ambush will probably never happen to you unless you are LE or go to Afghanistan. But it’s good to have the knowledge for a possible “without rule of law” scenario that may come your way.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wednesday, June 22, 2016

Batteries Power Your Preparation

Batteries are something we use almost every day. In an emergency situation, power will be extremely important for light, warmth, vehicles, and pumping water. A generator can help but they run on fuel. A solar generator is good but has limitations. Battery power for radios and lights are indispensable. There are many batteries out there with different pros and cons. I hope this will help you in your decision of which batteries will help you the most.
A rechargeable battery is a good alternative for a disposable battery. Using rechargeable batteries can save you money. You don’t have to use and dispose of batteries as often when you use rechargeable batteries. Rechargeable batteries are available for AA, AAA, and D. However, these kinds of batteries have a limited number of recharges. If you have reached the maximum number of recharges you have to change the battery.
Solar powered charging device
When there is no electricity for you to charge your batteries, you can use solar powered charging devices. There are devices that can provide hundreds of power cycles and it can be refueled by the sun. Goal zero makes some good products for charging batteries with the sun. Their devices can charge AA batteries, AAA batteries, or any USB port at the same time.
These are the different batteries and some info on them so that you can compare.

Cell type shelf life Capacity sizes available cycles cold weather use

Heavy duty 8+yrs Low AAA AA C D 9V 1 Poor
Alkaline 8+yrs Medium AAA AA C D 9V 1 Poor
Lithium (primary)15+yrs High AAA AA C D 1 Excellent
NiCd 3 mos Low AAA AA C D 9V 1-2K Good
NiMH 2 mos Medium AAA AA C D 9V 500-800 Poor
Lithium-ion 6 mos High R123A other sizes 300-500 Excellent
Heavy Duty
These are the cheapest batteries on the market. Their performance is also reflected by their low cost. They are the poorest quality battery. Avoid them.
These single use batteries are a good value. They are cost effective and perform just fine. One word of caution however: when purchasing Alkaline batteries, stick to brand names such as Duracell and Energizer, usually Ray-o-vac is cheapest. Generic brands such should be avoided as they are known to leak.
Lithium (primary)
These are the most expensive form of single use batteries but well exceed the others in terms of performance and capacity.
NiCD (Nickel Cadmium)
These rechargeables are a die hard for good reason. They are the most durable form of rechargeable battery you can buy. They will last a good 5 years of consistent use if properly cared for. Proper care includes sucking them dry every month or so and storing them in a cool place. They are also very reasonably priced. Please be careful when disposing of these. You should never burn, brake open, or dispose with other garbage. Locate a NiCd recycling bin to dispose of your batteries if possible.
NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride)
Great value. Expect up to 3 years of effective use with solid power density.
Require special care and larger power source to charge off of like a car or off-grid electrical system. Great cold weather performance with top of the line power density. They do deteriorate quickly though. There will be a noticeable reduction in performance within a year of use.
Storing batteries:
Alkaline batteries stored at "room temperature" self-discharge at a rate of less than two percent per year. So normally refrigerating or freezing them will only help maintain their charge by a tiny amount. Hardly worth the effort of chilling them. However, if alkaline batteries are stored at higher temperatures they will start to lose capacity much quicker. At 85 degrees F they only lose about 5% per year, but at 100 degrees they lose 25% per year. So if you live in a very hot climate or are storing your batteries in a very hot location, it may be worthwhile for you to store your alkaline batteries in a refrigerator instead.
NiMH and NiCd batteries self-discharge at a MUCH faster rate than alkaline batteries. In fact, at "room temperature" (about 70 degrees F) NiMH and NiCD batteries will self-discharge a few percent PER DAY. Storing them at lower temperatures will slow their self-discharge rate dramatically. NiMH batteries stored at freezing will retain over 90% of their charge for full month. So it might make sense to store them in a freezer. If you do, it's best to bring them back to room temperature before using them. Even if you don't freeze your NiMH batteries after charging them, you should store them in a cool place to minimize their self-discharge.
Evaluate your battery needs. What devices will need batteries? Will you need to use them in cold weather? Will you be able to recharge them? No matter what you’re preparing for, making a place in your storage for batteries will be space well spent.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Ruger Mini-14 and Bill's Birthday

Today is Bill Ruger’s 100th birthday! He has been gone since 2002 but his legacy lives on. Now before you hit me with Bill Ruger’s controversial statements and attempt to pacify gun-haters, let me remind you of the great guns Bill is responsible for, the 10-22, The Red Hawk, the Mini-14, these are what I celebrate in Bill Ruger’s life. He changed gun manufacturing regardless of hi “politics”.
With this celebration I present some little known facts about the Mini-14. My, how I love that gun! Some hate it and give their reasons, I have never had the problems that they had with this magnificent weapon.
The Mini-14 was first introduced in 1974 by Ruger. Initial rifles were produced with a complex, exposed bolt hold open device with no button for manual engagement. Stocks were somewhat angular and heat shields were made of wood. These rifles, with serial number prefixes before 181, were tooled and redesigned with a new stock, new bolt hold-open mechanism, and other small changes.
In 2003, Ruger again overhauled the design and the production process to improve accuracy and update the styling while at the same time reducing production costs. The new models, marketed as Ranch Rifles, are based on the previous Ranch models, with integral scope bases. In 2005, the new ranch rifles carried serial numbers beginning with 580. These rifles are sometimes referred to as 580 series ranch rifles. These new models use a modified gas system designed to reduce barrel vibration, and new iron sights.
At an unspecified time in 2007 to 2008, Ruger added a heavier tapered barrel to the series. The heavier barrel had an overall larger diameter with the barrel visibly becoming thicker in the final inches as the barrel approaches the gas block from the muzzle. These changes combined with tighter tolerances result in greater potential accuracy. The new Mini-14 rifles are capable of shooting under 2 MOA (Minute of angle) accuracy. I have a 1980’s model and I have shot 2 MOA for years with it. Sometimes it can shoot 1 MOA.
The Mini-14 proved popular with small-game hunters, ranchers, law enforcement, security personnel, and target shooters.

The name, Mini-14, is derived from the military’s M14 rifle. While developing the Mini-14, Ruger used the M14 as a base model for the new rifle. While incorporating a number of cost-saving alterations and innovations. So, the Mini-14 doesn’t share quite as much in common with the M14 as its name might suggest. Aside from shooting .223 Rem./5.56x45mm NATO rather than .308 Win./7.62x51mm NATO, the rifle uses a Garand style rotating bolt and simplified gas system.
Bill Ruger felt that, with better timing, the Mini-14 would have been the military’s choice as a successor to the M14. As we all know, history favored the AR-15 design that Colt had purchased from ArmaLite, instead, and the M16 was born.
The Mini-30, an evolution of the Mini-14, developed its own following upon its introduction in 1987. The Mini Thirty’s 7.62×39 mm chambering made it popular with owners of the venerable AK-47 build, but it made an impact on hunters, too. The cartridge’s ballistics were deemed more suitable for deer and similar game than the Mini-14’s .223 Rem.
The infamous 1986 FBI Miami shootout nearly single-handedly spurred the FBI and police departments around the country to begin carrying more powerful handguns and carbines. Why? During the fight, bank robber Michael Lee Platt did most of the regrettable incident’s damage while armed with his Mini-14, which possessed significantly more firepower than anything the responding law enforcement officials had brought with them.
At one point, Ruger began developing versions of the Mini-14 that were to be chambered in .308 Win. and .243 Win. Unfortunately, mechanical and production issues kept the rifles from ever being produced.
Like most of history’s more famous firearms, the Mini-14 has made its rounds in Hollywood. Versions of the rifle have popped up on screens large and small throughout the years, though the Mini-14’s most notable appearances probably came on “The A-Team.” During the show’s run, “Hannibal” Smith, Templeton “Faceman” Peck, “Howling Mad” Murdock and “B.A.” Baracus were all seen with at least one prop variant of the rifle. What beats Mr. T and a Mini-14? That’s a rhetorical question, mind you.
It’s possible, though difficult, to find a Ruger Mini-14 chambered in the .222 Remington cartridge. In an attempt to broaden its marketplace, Ruger once produced a number of rifles in .222 Rem. for sale in countries that prohibit civilian ownership of firearms that chamber military cartridges. The practice is a thing of the past, making Mini-14’s chambered in .222 Rem. one of the model’s rarest variants.
Bill Ruger is truly an innovator in the gun industry. I choose to ignore the ideas of his that I don’t agree with, and remember the great Ruger’s that I own and shoot.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Friday, June 17, 2016

Use It Or It Will Use You: Fatal Funnel

Several years ago I was training in a shoot house on a Texas Air Force base. I was with these great and crazy Air Force Security Forces guys. We had finished the qualifying requirements we had to do and were now just “playing”. We split into two teams. The team that was not running the drill would set up the house for the opposing team. We had done several of these and tried to set up drills that would make the opposing team fail or extend their time. On one drill I was point in a 3 man team. We entered the house ok but came to a hall way that had one room on opposing walls of the hall. We moved down the hall and secured the first room. Suddenly a smoke grenade rolled out of the last room. I stopped. We were not being timed. I kicked the grenade down the hall, let the smoke clear about 5 seconds then went in. I saw a threat and shot him. That was when I realized I was alone in the room! I cleared the room and went back into the hall and almost shot my team! They were all snickering which told me this was a prank on the non-cop. It was all done in fun and we finally settled down. The other team leader asked me why I didn’t come right out when I discovered I was alone. I said I didn’t want to go back out the fatal funnel. We talked for some time about the dilemma of the fatal funnel. I could see it coming. There are only a few ways of dealing with the fatal funnel. Usually it is quick and precise.
The "fatal funnel" is a term usually used pertaining to building-clearing operations. It refers to areas such as stairwells, hallways and doorways that are generally narrow, confining areas that offer little or no cover or concealment and potentially limit the tactical options if they have to go into combat.
The literal translation and image of a Fatal Funnel is a choke point where you're going to die. Therefore, the term "fatal funnel" implies that people will die if they are in these locations when the fight breaks out. Although these may be less desirable places to be when engaging in combat, the fight is far from over simply because you are in a hallway, doorway or stairwell.
The original meaning of the ‘fatal funnel’ was a warning to ensure that you did not pause or remain in doorways or windows. It was to prevent silhouetting yourself there. Of course, when readying to prevent a room entry, the ‘bad guy’ will naturally set up to shoot towards natural entry points. So, rather than over-defining the ‘fatal funnel’, it is more about enemy lines of fire, corners, and avoiding silhouetting yourself there. Don’t try and define the funnel and over complicate it.
In a similar way, if you go through a door and are confronted by an enemy in the middle of the room, shoot him! Often number 1 goes into the room and is too focused on his area. You need to engage the threats that you can see and let your team coming behind clear other areas. Yes, you need to clear the room, but you don’t ignore threats to do so. This is another problem of the complicating of these drills. If you are wondering how you do all this with bad guys in the room and you are funneling through the door, then welcome to the essential problem with these drills unless you have pre-shocked the room!
What does this mean to the average concealed carrier who will probably never be involved in a room entry like this, especially with a team? Your situation is the opposite. You will more than likely be the one pursued. Either you will be barricaded because of an active shooter, or you are dealing with a home invasion scenario. The point of this article is that if you don’t use the fatal funnel to your advantage, it can be used against you. It’s important to know how it works and how if may not have been actually analyzed as a tactic. It’s pretty natural to know that if someone is coming for me they have to use a doorway. But how that threshold is breached and what is done just inside the doorway that is tactical. Creating a funnel for the attacker is something you can do to use the funnel to your advantage. Natural barriers, such as walls, which way the door opens, and furniture, will always be there. But you can control where and how someone enters your room. I’m not saying to arrange your furniture tactically, but if you know of an imminent threat you can have a plan for creating a fatal funnel quickly. Putting a table or other piece of furniture on end or other placement of obstacles. Look at your bedroom or living room. What can be done quickly to create a funnel so that your attacker has to step into the kill zone. Whichever room, or room you think you’ll have to deal with an intruder, is where you can analyze and think through a few scenarios.
Decide that you will not be helpless. Decide to take your self-defense and the defense of your family seriously. Decide to not let the fatal funnel be used against you!

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Good Guy With A Gun (A Little Rant)

Anti-gun blathering idiots. They must not hand out brains when they hand liberals their decoder mood ring. (That will be all the name-calling I do today! Had to get it off my chest.) When anyone says the only way to stop a bad guy with a gun is a good guy with a gun, we mean not only armed citizens, but law enforcement (LE)!
PACIFIC STANDARD January 20 (I assume 2015 or 2016. I couldn’t find a year)
What this particular writer doesn’t understand is, a good guy with a gun is someone who is not a criminal. He seems to think that police have extensive training with guns. Some do, many qualify when they need to and don’t see the range until right before they have to qualify. I’m not saying they don’t have training, I’m just here to say that shooting is a perishable skill. I know this because I shoot. But writers are known for… writing, not their vast knowledge of guns and crime. Mr. Keller loves his statistics though. On one hand he praises police because he says they are the bulk of the heroes. But he just gets through telling us that Sheriffs across the nation want citizens to be the first line of defense then he seems to refute that claim. I guess Sheriffs across the nation are not as bright as the one’s he lauds as heroes. Clearly to anyone who knows about guns, Mr. Keller knows nothing about defending himself with one. He calls the police… If you do any type of research, you would know that the term “assault weapon” exists in the minds of the media and anti-gunners. What I find pernicious is Mr. Keller’s research, or lack therof.
I will say one thing I can agree with Mr. Keller about, Jeff Cooper said it best,"Owning a handgun doesn't make you armed any more than owning a guitar makes you a musician."
Many people who carry only shoot occasionally and train less.
I think they can turn into a big problem.
Another article I’ve been shown randomly. I know there are many like these articles out there.

Gersh, I’m so sorry your experience was “horrifying”. I think that maybe driving fast in a car or looking off of a large cliff would horrify you. Some people are easily horrified. This particular type of thinking and writing is what I’m talking about. At least Mr Kuntzman talked to someone who has real experience and training. He also went and shot a gun himself which I give him credit for. What I don’t appreciate is his stating that an AR-15 is the weapon of choice for mass murders. This is not true. There is hard data from LE that proves that the gun of choice by mass murderers is a handgun. Specifically a semi-auto over a revolver. I know that an article like Mr. Kuntzman’s is only the opinion of the writer, like my writing, but I fear that if someone has such a problem shooting an AR-15 what would happen if they shot a real powerful gun. The .223/5.56 round is one of the smallest rifle rounds made. It is .22 caliber. It is light on recoil. My daughters have shot these guns! When they were 8! I think that if Mr. Kuntzman shot a .30 caliber weapon he would be weeping in the corner. I guess what I’m suggesting is that some people are wimps and others can handle life. I’m not trying to be derogatory. I’m just suggesting that if the pop of an AR-15 horrifies you then I guess you are scared to death on the 4th of July. A car back-firing would put you in a coma. I’m sorry, I do not mean to start being sarcastic or exaggerate. I just have a problem with people who are always scared. I would guess Mr. Kuntzman to be about 35 from his picture. By that age, being skittish should be minimized in your life. I don’t know him at all so maybe I am wrong.
I think reporters need to stop reporting on guns. I’m not saying that I don’t want to hear another view of guns or a negative position, because I don’t have a problem with open and honest discussion of guns. But all this drama makes me think I’m dealing with someone who doesn’t deal with life very well.
I have talked about mainstream media (MSM) before. They tend to be liberal but also they tend to be slackers. They will only write about guns in their perspective and usually that is not favorable. I know that there are idiot gun owners out there. People that are unsafe and have no business having a firearm. They give good gun owners a bad name. Like Hillary for dems. (I know that was a cheap shot!)
What is the point of this article? Well, first, don’t believe everything that comes from reporters and MSM. There are many hacks out there. And two, if you are interested in guns or think you’d like to carry get educated on guns. I’m not saying you become a “gun guy”, but you should know the 4 safety rules backward and forward. You should get training and continue to train and practice. And three, good guy with a gun is good, responsible gun carriers AND law enforcement. Why the heck would you not consider LE a good guy?
Semper Parartus
Check 6

Thursday, June 16, 2016

What You Need To Know: Active Shooter

I don’t know how to put this. It’s a hard thing to be powerless. It’s sad to live in a world where security is so fragile. One thing that helps is to be realistic. We will never stop radicals, criminals, and nut jobs from killing people. It is a grim reality. We can’t stop it. Gun laws won’t stop them. Being armed won’t stop them. Having security checkpoints and armed guards won’t stop them. When something like Orlando, or San Bernardino, or 9-11, or Columbine, happens we feel helpless and so we flail about looking for a way to stop it. It cannot be stopped. Evil and mental instability will always be with us. But, the good news is, we can be better prepared and react better when it does happen.
Laws are not deterrents. Laws only affect the law abiding. If someone wants to kill or steal or commit terror they will. Now I’m not knocking our law enforcement (LE). They are the best in the world and they have often stopped crime and terrorist acts. The problem is, they cannot be everywhere and catch everything. We have to take matters into our own hands. In Israel they have been dealing with this for many years. They arm their citizens, train their citizens, and provide armed security everywhere. They actually built a fence for security. All we do in this country is fight over everything and security is always on the back burner. And so we have problems like Orlando.
What can you do? What would make you and your family safe and secure? This morning I got in my truck, fastened my seatbelt and drove to work. My truck has an airbag. I got to work and walked by the fire extinguisher in the hall and the sprinklers overhead. Why do we not give a second thought to being protected from fire or car accident? Because we do all we can to be prepared for it. We have some training also for it. Fire drills, driver’s education, fire extinguisher training. The best thing for someone who is not trained to do in an active shooter situation is run away. But most will freeze instead. I carry a gun. But I know that many people will not ever carry a gun. We’ve had shootings in schools and this has prompted training. So has active shooters in the workplace. I have active shooter training every year and we do active shooter exercises often. But there are other things that can be done. Every citizen should have some type of active shooter training. For those that do not, they more than likely freeze and become a victim. Being taught to have situational awareness would be a good start. Trust but verify. I believe some active shooter training would have saved lives in Orlando. Being taught that if you do not have a gun doesn’t mean you are disarmed is also important. This is one thing that so many people think. You can fight and win against an armed attacker. Especially if you are close and they have a rifle. It doesn’t take a lot of specialized training. You don’t have to be a martial arts master. Hollywood and TV have taught us a lot of falsehoods concerning guns and fighting.
If you are not interested in guns or carrying a gun that is fine. But violence to stop violence is really the only way. You can’t talk someone down from this kind of attack. You have to react with an explosiveness equal to the shock of the attack. I wasn’t at the Orlando nightclub and don’t know anyone who was. But if it’s a crowded nightclub I would guess that there were plenty of people near the entrance where the shooter first walked in with the gun. They probably reacted by fleeing because they had not been trained and did not know any better. But fleeing only gives the shooter more time and space to shoot people. Had one of the people rushed the shooter, who was probably arms-length distance away, then perhaps only three people would have died instead of 50. I know that is not what we are looking for. We want to prevent the event from happening at all. I don’t believe that is possible 100% of the time.
The American public has been often referred to as “sheeple”. Sometimes it is meant as a derogatory word but I think it is just a lack of leadership in this country. We know this is a problem yet we try to “stop” the shooter by trying to disarm him or by targeting him for investigation before he does anything. Sometimes this doesn’t work. We need to train our people until most citizens know the information like they know a fire drill and fastening their seatbelts.
This training needs to be real training. The governments “Run, Hide, Fight” training is a little lacking in my opinion. It’s better than nothing though. It’s a start. Department of Homeland Security has some information out there but this is something that should be pushed and as mandatory as we can handle. I know you can’t make people get trained, but if all schools, and all businesses would do this training, it would finally get out there. There are so many more people who die in a vehicle in this country than will ever die in an active shooter event. Yet every high school in the United States has driver’s education. This can and should be done. The U.S. people have more power than any terrorist or thug think they have. Just because someone cowers or freezes in the face of danger does not mean they are a cowardly. It means they’re not trained. You can’t be expected to go beyond the level of your training. That makes training so very important.

Americans are such a fickle bunch. We watch violent cartoons, gory slasher flicks, and countless TV shows dealing with death and mayhem, then when we come upon real violence we shrink.
I was driving home from a church assignment in a town about 50 miles away. I came over a hill and saw a mini-van a ways off the side of the road sitting on its side. There were about 4 or 5 cars that had pulled over to see if they could help. I figured a 5th car would not really be any good so I drove slowly by. As I looked in the mirror I saw a crowd of people about 50 feet away from the wrecked vehicle huddled on the shoulder of the road. Something told me to turn around and go back. This I did. I got out of my car and grabbed my first aid kit and walked up to the crowd and asked what was going on. They looked at me as if it was obvious, which it was, and mumbled “accident”. I looked at the crowd of about 8 people and asked if someone had called 911. They stared at me. I pointed at a guy with his cell phone in his hands and said “You! Call 911!” I looked at another guy and said “Go over to that mile marker and get the number for me!” They both complied. I said to this big Tongan guy, “Come with me!” He went with me to the car that was smoking a little. He helped me climb on the car and open the door. There was a woman in the passenger seat kind of hanging from her seatbelt. Her husband was in the driver seat in his seatbelt but he gashed his head pretty good and was in and out. I asked the woman her name and she told me Naomi. She was lucid. I asked if there was anyone else in the van and she said no. I got the man to talk and he was fairly lucid. I handed him a surgical pad and told him to put it on his wound. We felt we needed to get them out so my Tongan friend got up there and we got them out. I know what you EMT’s out there are thinking, “You shouldn’t have moved them!” Deal with it. That’s what I thought needed to happen. I didn’t like the smoking engine. I was worried about fire.
We got them out and away from the car and into shade. We treated for shock, stopped the man’s head wound from bleeding, and got water in them just as the EMT’s drove up. I told them what we did, and what I knew. I grabbed my first aid kit and got the heck out of dodge. I didn’t want to tell anyone who I was. I didn’t want to deal with any law suits or repercussions from helping.
What I learned from that incident is most Americans don’t know how to deal with violence. This was accidental violence, but still violence. Most people, even if they are jerks and mean, are not violent. Why were there several people standing around an accident scene with cell phones and no one called 911? Why did they stop, get out of their cars only to congregate on the side of the road away from the accident? Because Americans are sheltered here in the land of the free. That’s not a bad thing, I’m grateful to not live in a war torn country. But those people knew that they should do something. That’s why they stopped. But without training or experience, they basically froze.
The odds are low you’ll ever be a victim of terrorism. You’re 35,079 times more likely to die from heart disease, and 33,842 times more likely to die from cancer than from a suicidal and well-armed maniac on a rampage.
But at least the heart attack, in most cases, isn’t a complete surprise—unless you’ve been avoiding doctors your whole life—and won’t happen just because you got on the wrong train or bought a ticket for the wrong movie.
If you’re like most people, you feel unprepared. If the worst happens, and we don’t happen to carry around artillery, what do we do?

Get away
Leaving the area where the shooter is located is the best thing. I’m not saying run away and leave everyone, try to get as many to come with you as you can. I feel I’m trained in a lot of things that would help me in an active shooter scenario, but that is not my job. I am not LE. It is their job, their duty, to fight crime. I will fight if I have to. When you go, leave everything, don’t take time to grab a purse or other personal items unless they are only a reach away.

In my opinion this is sometimes the stupid way to die. The only way hiding is worth anything is if you can actually secure your hiding place. If you can have a locked door in between you and the shooter, then hide. Jumping under a desk is useless. Concealment is one thing, but concealment without security is waiting to die. There are very few things that will stop a bullet. So most things are concealment. Get out or secure your hiding place If you can. But if not, you can use what I call collective resistance. The most important tool you have to stop a shooter is the element of surprise. The last thing he expects is to be counter-attacked. A shooter thinks he has the power. He thinks that because he has a firearm, this is it, he’s going to kill everybody he wants today and then kill himself and that will be it.
If you’ve ever been involved with shooting firearms, when you shoot, you are looking down that barrel. You’re looking to align your sights with a target. Otherwise you’re not going to hit anybody. That puts you in tunnel vision, or target fixation. Use that to your advantage. There is also something that is called “the fatal funnel”. The shooter has to go through a door way, framing himself. You can further “funnel” his movement by putting things in his way and funneling him in a direction you want him to go.
Be very careful with hiding. Lockdowns can kill people. I’m not saying that lockdowns should occur, but just be aware of the situation it may put you in. Hoping the shooter doesn’t find you under a desk is silly. Hope is not a strategy.

Most active shooter don’t have a lot of weapons training. Most of them will kill themselves when confronted by resistance. First thing you want to do is obstruct his vision by turning out the lights. If he’s coming from a lit environment into a partially dark environment, it will take a few seconds for his eyes to adjust. Even if you can’t control the light in your room throw something at his eyes, it will buy you a second or two. Then take him down. Rush him in a coordinated effort. Knock the attacker to the ground. If you’re not alone he is outnumbered. Beat his head or face. Gouge his eyes with your thumbs. You must inflict injury until the threat is finished. This is not competition. There are no rules. Hit him with anything you can find. Stop the threat.

Here are some videos with some training in this area:

Run. Hide. Fight by City of Houston, TX

Surviving and active shooter – LA County Sheriff

Active Shooter Defense – Save Your OWN Life
Not a training video but you can see many ideas for fighting back.

If you’re interested in additional training I would recommend Alon Stivi DVDs. He is a security master and ex Israeli Special Forces, Sayeret Matkal. ACT is attack countermeasures training @
These are real good training videos for your family, business, hospital, or school.
When it comes to active shooter advice, don’t take my word for it. This advice is from a great website/blog
1.Get Down. Regardless of where you are at, when the bullets start flying you need to get as close to the ground as possible, as fast as possible. At this point, the shooter has momentum on his side, as well as surprise. If you have never been shot at before (and even if you have), you may initially be in shock. The best thing you can do is getting on the ground to avoid the gunfire that will be traveling at 3-6 feet above the ground.
2. Find Cover and/or Concealment. After you have hit the ground, you need to identify cover and/or concealment to move to as quickly as possible. Cover is something you can get behind that will conceal you AND stop bullets. Concealment is just that – concealment, it won’t stop bullets though. Obviously, cover is the better option of the two, but take what you can get.
3. Attempt to call 911. Once you have found cover/concealment, attempt to call 911 or send an emergency text message out. This will not be possible in all situations, but it should at least be attempted as quickly possible so that professional help will be sent to put the scumbag down.
4. Try to find a makeshift weapon. A screwdriver, a table fork, a kitchen knife, a glass wine bottle… something! Anything! It should be noted that right about the point you figure out that a wine bottle is your only defense against a gun-wielding active shooter, is when you start to wish you were carrying concealed and made it out to the range more often to train. With your temporary weapon in hand though, you at least have something to use if you find yourself in very close proximity to the shooter. It may not stop them, but it may slow them down.
5a. If you are away from shooter: Identify the best route of egress and get as many of those around you to follow you out. Get to safety, and bring as many with you as possible. Hopefully at this point the cavalry will have arrived, and medical personnel will be standing by to treat injuries. If not, start putting compression on as many open, bleeding wounds as you can.
5b. If you are close to shooter: Let everyone around you know that at the next magazine change (or moment of opportunity), they are all going to follow your lead and bum-rush the shooter. You can’t get up and run for the door, because he’ll shoot you dead. The only option is to attack. This is no guarantee that you’ll make it out of this ordeal alive; he may get you but he won’t be able to get everyone with you that is bum-rushing him. If you die, die knowing that you saved the lives of others around you.
When you attack, make sure that you go for the tackle. Take the shooter to the ground if possible. This is you and your group’s best chance for survival. If you get him to the ground, use your procured weapon or your fists/nails/whatever to incapacitate the shooter. There are no rules at this point; go for the eyes, the groin, anything that will keep this person from continuing the rampage.

Semper Paratus
Check 6