Monday, February 29, 2016

Siphoning Gas/Water

Have you ever needed some gas for your lawnmower, motorcycle, and generator or perhaps tried to help a stranded friend who needed some gas, assuming you could easily get it out of your own vehicle? If you have, you know it’s not possible to siphon gas with conventional tools or standard siphons available on the market today.

Many people have tried to siphon gas out of one of their newer vehicles only to find out they hit one if not two major difficulties. It is not easy. Most new model cars and SUV’s have emergency valves that stop gas from draining out in the event of a roll-over. This valve also acts as a siphon prevention system which is the reason why nearly all the siphon devices and pumps sold these days are useless. That being said, there is a way to siphon gas from a modern car, you just need to know how to do it and have the right tools for the job.

The anatomy of the blockage in newer vehicles is a ball valve or butterfly valve. There is enough room for gas to get through the fueling tube into the tank, but if the car flips over and gas begins to flow the other direction, the ball moves to the inlet and blocks the gas from escaping or the butterfly flap closes.

The fundamental issue is that you need a line skinny, stiff and flexible enough to get through the valve and around the ball or flap. That is much easier said than done.

The first thing you need to get around a ball valve is 6-8 feet of 1/4 inch stiff plastic line with a smooth tapered tip narrowed towards the end with a semi rigid outer guide line to keep the 1/4 inch line from kinking when it hits the initial ball valve. With a firm twisting, bump and pushing motion, it is reasonably easy to get around most ball valves.

The next thing you’ll need is a thicker diameter fuel line that can receive the 1/4 inch line without leaking. This line will be used to connect to a fuel filter and then to a pump.

Gravity siphoning through the narrow line is doable but extremely slow. With a hand squeeze bulb pump you can move more gas but for best results use a very powerful fuel pump with 7-10PSI and serious self-priming dry-lift capability.

Pure siphoning through 1/4 inch line with sufficient gravity, you can move approximately 1 gallon every 8 minutes. Without the 1/4 inch line it's about a half-gallon a minute.

Moving gas through a 1/4 inch line using a hand squeeze bulb, it is possible to move approximately 1 gallon every 4 minutes (until your hand gives out).

Gas will quickly become one of the most important commodities in a crisis. Unfortunately, it will also be one of the scarcest. The gas stations that do have fuel will have unimaginably long lines, until their tanks go dry.

The best way to avoid a calamity is to keep your tank over halfway full at all times. Even in this scenario, however, you may not have enough fuel to evacuate.

In the movies, siphoning gas out of a car’s fuel tank looks like good old-fashioned fun. In the real world, it’s nasty, dirty, dangerous business.

To help you avoid injury or death, we have put together an easy to use guide to siphoning gas.

1. Gather Your Supplies

You will only need three supplies to create a siphon that will not require you to suck on the hose:

1. A Power Cable (You can also use a flexible PVC pipe or clear piping)

2. A Plastic Bottle

3. A Pair of Scissors

Take the power cable and cut through the insulation on one end. This will leave you with exposed wires in the middle of the cable. Do not cut them

After the internal wires are exposed and free of their outer insulation, you can stand on the other end of the power plug. Make sure you are wearing shoes so that you do not hurt your foot!

Next, begin pulling the wires out of the power cord. This will take some leverage, but you should be able to remove the wires without exerting a lot of effort. As soon as the wires are free of the insulation, you will be left with your siphoning pipe.

Take the cap off of the plastic water bottle. Use your scissors to cut a small hole into the cap.

This hole should be a little bit narrower than the siphoning pipe that you created from the power cord, so the tube will fit through the hole very snugly.

Even though the hole you cut was a bit narrower than the pipe, you should be able to push your pipe through it relatively easily.

The hole will naturally expand as the pipe is introduced. This is the reason that you did not make the hole any bigger. After all, you want the pipe to have a snug fit.

After the pipe has been pushed about an inch into the cap, you will screw the cap onto the plastic bottle. As you can see, this will result in the end of your siphoning pipe being placed inside the bottle.

After you have completed the basic assembly, you can test the siphon with water or any other liquid.

Simply place a container with water above the bottle, and then put one end of the siphon tube into that water.

Next, squeeze the water bottle slightly as shown in the picture. When you do this, you should notice some air bubbles in the water container.

As you release your grip on the water bottle so that the sides are no longer squeezed in, enough suction should be created to start the initial flow of water.

At this point, it is important to unscrew the bottle cap to prevent a very slow trickle of water.

If you do not want to collect the fluid in the bottle, you can unscrew the lid altogether and transfer the siphon hose to another container.

As long as you keep the hose lower than the source of the liquid that is being transferred, everything should continue flowing freely.

Please note: You do not have to use a power cable if you have other similar options on hand. For example, PVC pipe or clear cheap tubing can be just as successful.

Now that you know how to safely move gas or other liquids from one place to another, you can avoid using the old-fashioned sucking technique. It is never a good idea to use the older method because this can kill you. We understand that an emergency situation may call for desperate measures, but keep in mind that killing yourself in your pursuit of gas is the antithesis of the prepper mentality. Survival is the name of the game, and you can greatly improve your odds of surviving if you prepare a proper siphoning device before you actually need it.

Working with fuel is dangerous. Swallowing fuel is toxic. Fuel vapors are not good to breath. Gasoline contact with the skin can dry it out severely. Do not splash in your eyes. Fuel is flammable and combustible. If gasoline is stored untreated it can begin to break down within a week.
If things are really bad out there and you do not want a vehicle for parts or to get in a drivable condition all you need are a container, a hammer, and a screwdriver. You pound a hole in the gas tank and let the gas drain into your container.
Fuels can be stored but must be treated or they break down. Heat and temperature changes are not good on stored gas. Don’t store flammable things in your home or garage (you can store 2 to 10 gallons). Store fuels in a well ventilated room or outside away from buildings.
Do not store near heat or open flames.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Friday, February 26, 2016

Profiling The Right Way

Do you profile? As you walk down the street and you notice a guy in a hoody, hood on his head, sunglasses, hands in pockets. If the temperature is 80 degrees rather than 45 degrees, there may be a problem. Is this profiling? You bet it is. Is it racial profiling? No it is not. We all must make many judgements both serious and mundane. We all profile. We must to function and to be prepared. As long as we don’t stereotype due to looks or culture. Here are a few bad examples.
A woman called police to report her neighbor as a possible terrorist. It seems that the man (a Russian immigrant) who lived in the apartment next to the caller for more than two years without incident, had purchased a new vehicle. The man bought a flat bed truck and had a large tank full of water mounted in the back. It seems that he had just started a commercial landscape irrigation company.
The caller told police that she feared that her Russian neighbor was covertly developing a system to spray aerosol bioweapons through the neighborhood. When officers asked if she had seen the neighbor spraying anything, ordering or mixing strange chemicals, or doing anything at all that would support her theory, the woman said:
“No. But he’s Russian and I’ve heard that Russians are terrorists. He barely speaks English. He fits all the profiles of a terrorist. “
The elderly male caller reported a suspicious person moving through several neighbors’ back yards. The only description he provided was that the suspicious person was a black male. Officers arrived and found the man. He was wearing a neon green sweatshirt with the words “METER READER” written on both the front and rear. He had a tablet computer in his hand and was moving from one external gas meter to another through the yards. The caller didn’t bother telling the cops that part of the description.
When police officers told the caller that he had reported the meter reader, the caller said: “He still doesn’t belong here. They say that you should always call the police whenever you see someone who doesn’t belong.”
If you can’t articulate to the police dispatcher exactly why you think a person is “suspicious,” perhaps they really aren’t “suspicious” and don’t require police attention.
Here are some tips that may help in actually profiling a criminal or someone up to what could be said as suspicious or of a terrorist nature.
1. You’re being followed. Humans have an ancient and well-tuned ability to sense when they’re being stalked. If you are on foot and sense someone is following you, look for a well-lit area, an open place of business or a gathering of people. A criminal is far less likely to attack if there are witnesses nearby.
2. A male under 30. The highest percentage of violent crimes are committed by males under 30. The older a man becomes, the less likely he is to engage in criminal behavior. There are female criminals, too, but most are involved in either non-violent crimes (theft, fraud, etc.) or violent attacks on people they already know. Women rarely attack strangers.
3. Loitering. A young person who is standing against a building or a lamp post with no obvious objective should be regarded with suspicion. Most cities have laws against loitering to prevent would-be criminals from staking out locations or lying in wait for vulnerable targets to appear.
4. Loose, baggy clothes. There’s a reason loose clothes, especially shirts that hang over the beltline, became “gangsta” fashion statements. Loose-fitting shirts and pants make it easy to conceal guns, knives and other weapons.
5. Secretive behavior. Someone who is glancing around nervously as if concerned about being spotted may have an honest -- or should we say, dishonest -- reason for doing so. A man preparing to commit a criminal act is likely to be nervous, jumpy and even paranoid. If you see a man behaving like this, it’s best to steer clear and alert an authority figure (if you are not already one yourself).
6. Face and neck tattoos. Tattoos are far more common than they were in decades past, especially among young people. Even so, tattoos on the face and neck tend to be worn primarily by men who want to look tough and menacing. Such people who openly broadcast their intentions should be reason enough to be wary.
7. Concealing headgear. Hats, beanies and hoodies that hide a person’s face can be a sign of criminal intent. Identity-concealing headgear is an essential criminal accessory in this age of ever-present security cameras.
8. Angry/hungry eyes. It’s often said that the eyes are the window to the soul. When a person’s eyes look angry, haunted or aggressive, it’s likely because the soul behind them is equally dark. Facial expression is an ancient form of communication that pre-dates even spoken language, and we all have an innate ability to sense most people’s intentions by simply reading the look in their eyes. Take such messages seriously.
9. Sunglasses at night. One way criminals attempt to conceal their identities -- and their intentions -- is by wearing sunglasses. Of course, if it’s daylight, sunglasses are perfectly appropriate. But after sunset? They become a legitimate cause for concern.
10. Individuals who seem nervous and out of place. In an ordinary situation, someone who is sweating, looking around anxiously, or otherwise acting panicked may have violent intent. Be especially suspicious of anyone who seems out of place: wearing a uniform that does not match, doesn't seem to known anyone in a social space.
11. Attire and posture of a suicide bomber. An imminent suicide bomber might exhibit signs the US government refers to as ALERT.
• A – Alone and nervous. Report someone who is alone and seems nervous, sweating, eyes darting around, muttering.
• L – Loose and bulky clothing not compatible with weather conditions. If you see someone strangely overdressed, or who looks like they have something hidden under their clothes, report them.
• E – Exposed wires. Wires sticking out of clothing could indicate a bomb.
• R – Rigid mid-section. Wearing an explosives belt or harness makes some terrorists sit very upright. If you see someone with unnatural posture who exhibits other signs of ALERT, alert the authorities.
• T – Tightened hands. Someone with tightened hands may be holding a detonation device in place. Report someone in this posture immediately.
12. Notice chemical odor or burns. People missing fingers, or who smell like chemicals, may be experimenting with explosives. Notice if someone is making frequent trips to remote places and returning with chemical burns or chemical odor. Three common chemical odor smells are a sweet burning smell, an acrid smell (like bleach), or a motor-oil smell.
None of these signs — alone or in combination — is a 100-percent accurate predictor of criminal intent. Far from it. We all have to be careful not to fall victim to stereotypes. However, these signs raise the odds that criminal or terrorist activity is at hand. Anyone who has worked in public/private security or law enforcement enough time tends to develop a “sixth sense” for spotting criminal personalities. These 12 signs are simply the most common and obvious indicators that someone may not have your best interests in mind, and that you should be on alert and ready to respond appropriately in the event of an attack.
The color code, as originally introduced by Jeff Cooper, had nothing to do with tactical situations or alertness levels, but rather with one’s state of mind. As taught by Cooper, it relates to the degree of peril you are willing to do something about and which allows you to move from one level of mindset to another to enable you to properly handle a given situation.
Simplified Color Code
In White you are unprepared and unready to take any action. If you are attacked in White you will probably die unless your adversary is totally inept.
In Yellow you bring yourself to the understanding that your life may be in danger and that you may have to do something about it.
In Orange you have focused upon a specific adversary and are prepared to take action which may result in his death, but you are not in a lethal mode.
In Red you are in a lethal mode and will act if circumstances warrant.
Your attitude and your mindset are important to what level you want you and your family to be secure.
There is a quote from General James N. Mattis, USMC, Commander US CENTCOMM
“Be polite, be professional, but have a plan to kill everybody you meet.”
He didn’t say to kill indiscriminately, but to have a plan.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Monday, February 22, 2016

Law Enforcement and All Lives Matter

Check out this video. President Obama praises "Black Lives Matter". But I praise "Blue Lives Matter"
If you've read my posts on here for any amount of time you would see that I have always supported our Law Enforcement (LE) officers and feel they are the best in the world. In some articles I may have come across as not trusting LE. I believe in Constitutional rights and feel LE often has a tough road in doing their job. I will say right here now. LE in the U.S. are the absolute best in the world. We should be concerned about these lives who we hire to enforce the law, and keep the peace. They are not perfect, and sometimes they make mistakes or there are some bad apples out there. But I do not support any group or individual who advocates not supporting, harming, or generally mistreating our LE. They have a thankless job and "Black Lives Matter" and groups like them, would be whining and crying for help if all of a sudden LE disappeared. I don't like groups like "Black Lives Matter" because everyone matters. Our President and this group does nothing but divide this country and make it weaker. Both should be ashamed of themselves. Our President should never support anything that does not care for all the citizens of this country. To say that I'm glad to see this President leave would be an understatement. If this makes me racist I guess I am. I don't think I am, but others seems to decide that for me.

Check out this video, it speaks volumes.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Gun Free Zones

Where in the U.S. can you experience the biggest risk of an active shooter event? Choose any gun free zone. On December 3, 2015 The Washington Post published an article citing a decline in gun violence in the U.S. for the last 20 years. It said, “In 1993, there were seven homicides by firearm for every 100,000 Americans. … By 2013, that figure had fallen by nearly half, to 3.6 [per 100,000].” It also said, “Even as a certain type of mass shooting is apparently becoming more frequent, America has become a much less violent place.” I agree with the fact that gun violence is down. The article cited reasons that I won’t repeat because I think they are really no reasons at all. Here’s the article link if you’d like to check it out.
What I do believe is that gun violence is down, but gun violence in gun free zones (GFZ) is way up!
Congressional Research Service showed that the number of privately owned firearms increased from 192 million in 1994 to 310 million in 2009. And record background checks under President Obama make it easy to see how tens of millions more privately owned guns have found their way into Americans’ hands since 2009. So gun ownership increased for 20 years, but “gun homicides” decreased–except in gun free zones.
The Washington Post points to a study by Mother Jones that claims that high-profile shootings began increasing in gun-free zones in late 2011/early 2012. The examples Mother Jones provides are the Aurora movie theater, Sandy Hook Elementary, and the D.C. Navy Yard, all of which were gun-free zones.
Other examples of shootings in gun-free zones that could have been cited are Arapahoe High School (December 2013), Fort Hood (April 2014), Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church (June 2015), Chattanooga military offices (July 2015), the Lafayette Grand Theatre (July 2015), and Umpqua Community College (October 2015). Also in 2015 France was attacked by terrorists. This is a little different than a nut with a gun, but France’s gun laws are already strict. It is virtually a “gun free” country.
Now an Uber driver goes on a rampage killing 6 people. Here’s part of Uber’s “no-gun” policy
“Uber and its affiliates therefore prohibit possessing firearms of any kind in a vehicle.”
These are all clear examples that gun free laws and policies don’t really work. Law abiding citizen’s go unarmed, but terrorists and criminals can have all they want. There are liberal leaning publications (most main stream media is included) that will try to tell you that someone being armed other than police will not make a difference. This is a lie that I know from personal experience is just not true. I realize that every person is not going to be armed even if they can legally do it. I know that being unarmed in a gun free zone is pressing your luck.
I want a fighting chance. Mother Jones and the Washington Post think that if the economy was a little better (President Obama says that it is…) or if we had stricter gun control that these shootings will decrease.
To be honest, I’m not sure they know, and I know that I don’t know what to do to change the current situation.
The right to defend yourself is a God given right. No laws, statistics, or studies will change that fact. The Constitution is just a document that recognizes that right. The rest of the world has always wanted to be like the U.S. I’m not so sure how they may feel now, but at one time we were the worlds example. The Constitution and our rights are why the world has patterned themselves after our form of government.
As Colonel Jessup said in A Few Good Men, “You can’t handle the truth!” I say that guns “…existence, while grotesque and incomprehensible to you, saves lives. You don't want the truth because deep down in places you don't talk about at parties, you want me on that wall, you need me on that wall.”
Those that say we don’t need guns yet are protected by “gun totin’” security, police, or military are being hypocritical. Politicians that don’t want citizens to have a gun yet have one themselves are hypocritical. I have worked with, shot with, and trained with these professionals that liberals say are the only people that should be authorized guns. Most of them are exceptional. Some of them are dinks. Some of them barely qualify with their service weapon every 3 months. Who would you rather have armed? Someone who practices every week, or someone who hardly shoots their assigned weapon?
I know that every concealed carrier does not necessarily practice like I do. I enjoy it. It relaxes me. I used to compete but that got to be not what I wanted shooting to be for me.
I guess what I’m trying to say is, just because you wear a badge doesn’t mean you can shoot a 2 inch group at 25 yards. And also that being in a gun free zone is a dangerous risk. A risk we put on our children and military every day.
This puts a great responsibility on concealed carry participants. One, to not do stupid things with your gun, and two, to practice and be worthy of the defensive power that you wield.
Train like you mean it and when the time comes, you won’t be defenseless even though you carry a gun.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Friday, February 19, 2016

Cover and Concealment: Stop A Bullet

This article is a little boring. It’s not about anything exciting or “sexy” in the shooting world. But the information in this article can save your life!
Do you know the difference between cover and concealment?
One of the most exciting series of action movies from the 80’s and 90’s is Bruce Willis’s “Die Hard” movies. There is the original, which is always the best of a series it seems, from 1988. There are 4 sequels from 1990 to 2013. Yippee-ki-yay!
These were fun movies but surely they were fiction at its best. Bruce Willis seemed to have an unending supply of ammunition better than an old John Wayne movie. He also found lots of refuge behind walls. Seemingly he was safe behind a wall.
As usual Hollywood teaches us falsehoods that could get us all killed!
If you are to really understand cover you have to understand that not much will stop a bullet. Car doors, cinderblock or sheetrock walls, furniture, 50 gallon drums, and solid-core doors will not stop a bullet! Very few things in your home, including your refrigerator, stop bullets.
To have this understanding is to have an understanding how cover and concealment work from a materials stand point.
The destructive power of a round is proportional to its velocity. The more you can slow a bullet down the less damage it can do and the less range it has. The more you can flatten a bullet the faster it slows down. The more you can break a bullet apart the less damage it -may- do (there is always the “golden BB”). The smaller the parts, the easier for the individual parts to be stopped. If you can get the parts below 400 fps, odds are good the parts will not break the skin. Therefore you may not need to stop the bullet cold, but slow it down enough that it does not break the skin. You may just need to bleed off some speed.
So what stops or slows down bullets? You have metal, fibers, stone and liquids. One or a combination of any of the four may work. It depends on your application…
Maybe you want a dedicated dry fire area or an armored safe room. How much weight you can hold and how much space you have may change what you need.
Fibers: Wood sucks at stopping bullets. Woven Kevlar works great. Fiberglass is so-so. Several layers of fiberglass with the right epoxy can be great!
Stone and liquid stone known as concrete work great! They are not very portable. They have thickness issues. “Baby” stones like pea gravel or sand have their place. Ceramics also fit here.
Metals: These are great for the thickness. A hard steel works best, a Soft steel comes next, Aluminum is next (Hard and soft are blurred), and then copper. I saw a video of electrical transformers being shot with various calibers of ammunition. It was very interesting. Transformers are layers of copper windings and mild steel. They soak up a lot of bullets even from high powered rifles.
This leads us to a very important point! Layers! Layers can stop more than a single thickness of the same material. Four 1/16″ thick sheets can stop more than a single 1/4″ sheet. Some of the layers may be breached, but the over-all thickness will not. It may be hard for somebody to work with a thick layer of steel, but not smaller layers. It normally takes between a 1/4″ to a 1/2″ of steel to stop a bullet or 3/8″ to 3/4″ of Aluminum. Something like a metal target need to be a solid layer, the same with an active backstop. However something like a safe room or dry fire station can use layers.
Stones are great to break up bullets. Something like a patio block or even bathroom tile can break up bullets. The problem is that they often break up as well as the bullet. You may want to set them or glue them to some sort of backer like plywood to help hold them together.
Wood and other fibers: Wood is the most common and easiest for most people to work with. It is crap for stopping bullets. I have layered as much three 3/4″ sheets of plywood and bullets fly through it. That is thicker than most wall studs by 50%. Here is why it is VERY useful. It soaks up shrapnel like a sponge. You can use it to help prevent bounce back. Now, if you were to glue some 1/8″ sheets of steel between those wooden sheets you’d have some very good cover.
The difference between cover and concealment.
Cover is a barrier that can physically stop a projectile from hitting you. Concealment offers protection by disrupting the shooter’s sight picture. The chances of a shooter scoring a hit are lower if he cannot see his target, therefore concealment is not always a bad option. However, if the shooter has already seen you, finding effective cover may be your only option.
So what can you actually get behind to save yourself? Engine blocks are a good idea. An engine block can stop just about any pistol round and placing that block between you and a bullet might give you the cover and concealment you need. A vehicle’s steel wheel rim also stands up to bullets fairly well. You might think that brick and stone walls offer decent cover, but masonry tends to shatter when hit with bullets. You may end up hiding behind a pile of rubble before you know it. One of the best things to get behind is sand. The military has used sandbags for years, and with good reason. Sand or tightly packed earth are both very effective bullet stoppers. Six inches of sand can stop just about anything the bad guys are likely to throw at you. While I’m not suggesting you line the interior of your home with military sandbags, it’s good to know that a berm, ditch, or trench offer better protection than metal doors or interior walls.
Choose your cover wisely, and remember the movies have it all wrong. Nobody wants to get in a shootout, but it’s good to have the knowledge to survive in case your luck runs out.
Cover is actually pretty rare in the world. Most things we think might stop bullets wont. The best cover in the world is a wall of reinforced concrete with a triple layer of sandbags behind it, but we don’t see that very often. Standard brick walls are okay as are large trees (close to 2 feet plus). Beware, because things will break down after being hit with many rounds. Also, I am only discussing small arms. If the enemy has a rocket launcher cover can quickly be turned into concealment.
Concealment is something that prevents an enemy from seeing you, or at least from seeing you completely. It is not as good as cover, but in keeping an enemy from having a complete sight picture it is far better than standing in the open. This is especially true if you are constantly relocating (as in a withdrawal,) your enemy doesn’t understand the difference between cover and concealment or they don’t have the ammunition to pour through a soft wall to find you. Things that could commonly be used as cover include the walls of normal wood frame houses, small trees and foliage or car bodies.
It is possible to sit in a hardened concrete box surrounded by sandbags. This would be the ultimate cover right? But when you do someone is going to walk up, open the door and ventilate you. Using cover has its disadvantages as well. The more cover/concealment you use the more restricted your field of fire. You have to expose yourself to fire in order to get at the enemy. The trick is in using cover for maximum benefit for minimum exposure.
There are some basic rules to fighting from cover and concealment.
1) Fire around cover instead of over it. When you are over something you are silhouetted. it is easier for the enemy to see you. This might not be possible along long walls or maybe the best firing position is blocked or in use.
2) Get back from the cover, this diminishes the enemies ability to see you without seriously limiting your field of fire. It also makes it easier to move (either to shift locations or to dive for more cover) as you don’t have to back away from the cover before moving.
3) Be prepared to move your body to shift fire instead of moving your rifle barrel. This is necessary when behind cover (as you should be.)
4) Master and be prepared to modify the standard shooting positions. You might need to lean out to shoot around cover and expose less of your body, or crouch lower than shown in shooting books.
5) In the offense or on the move study the terrain you are moving to. Have your next location picked out before you “break cover.”
6) In the offense, when breaking cover, try not to move out from or next to cover. Have a head start. For example; if you are moving out of a prone position roll away from where you were just at before standing up, if you are moving from behind a building back up and get a head start so you will already be moving fast when you are first exposed.
7) In the defense be aware of the limitations of your field of fire as discussed above. Make sure that you and any teammates have overlapping fields of fire.
8) In the defense, if at all possible take the time to turn concealment in to cover. Many things can be knocked together to hold dirt in front and on top of you. In urban and suburban environments boxes, drawers and pillowcases are ready made sand bags. Tables and chairs can have dirt piled on to protect from overhead cover. In rural environments you will probably have to dig and get more creative. (Note: I’m not a big fan of citizen soldiers planning to dig in to hold ground, but one hour with a small shovel can save your life.)
He who fights and runs away lives to fight another day. Getting out of a firefight, what we called breaking contact in the military is always the best course of action. Preventing a firefight or leaving a firefight is better than any cover you can think of.
Get familiar with cover and concealment and remember the importance of prevention.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wednesday, February 17, 2016

Is The FBI Stupid?

The FBI is too stupid! I just had to share my rant with anyone who will listen. The FBI still, after 2 months, still cannot get into San Bernardino terrorists I-phones. They have gone to a judge who has ordered Apple to open up this particular phone.
I say, as I have before, that this is lazy police work. If you don’t know how to get into this phone, you find out and train FBI people to do it. Don’t expect someone else to do your work! Don’t get me wrong, I like the FBI. I think they are great and they do a thankless job. But if the FBI can’t do their job don’t come to us, citizens or private business, and force us to do your work.
I’ve said it before, no good can come from talking to the police. Too often law enforcement (LE) expects help from us. Now I am not advocating any type of blocking of justice, what I want is for LE to do their work and get their evidence. I should not be forced or even expected to do LE’s job.
I want to be clear, I think LE in the U.S. is the best. Second to none. So quit trying to force business to do your job of gathering evidence. If the evidence was in a safe would you force a locksmith to open the safe? The same goes for encryption, it should not be easy to get into. But LE should not expect anyone else to get into what is secure. I believe privacy should be protected.
Benjamin Franklin said:
"Those who would give up essential Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety."

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Giving Bad Gun Advice!

It happened again. I was at the range and I ran into a guy I hadn’t seen in a while. I used to see him at the range all the time but my work schedule changed and I hadn’t seen him in some time. He was with another guy and we had an interesting conversation. In the process of the conversation my friend’s friend asked me for advice on a particular gun and some gear. I paused before I answered and then asked him some questions about his choices. It turned out that he already bought the gun on someone else’s advice and wanted some confirmation. We talked about what he wanted out of the gun and gear in question and concluded that maybe a different choice would take care of his needs. Not once did I mention a brand. I’ve done it before. But I try to not drop brand names. I mean, is a Glock really better than a Kimber or a Sig Saur? All these guns are great as are Smith and Wesson, Ruger, etc. There are many really good gun makers out there. I feel like I’ve heard all the advice there is out there but once in a while I’m surprised. Don’t get caught giving the following bad advice.

If it feels good shoot it!
Do not tell someone to get a gun because it “fits” their hand or “feels” good. I’ve felt some pretty good “feeling” handguns that shot like a slingshot. This is about as crazy as buying a gun because of the way it looks! It would be good if a gun did the task you wanted it to do AND felt wonderful. Some do. Some may not. Initially a gun can “feel” good but with time you can see it’s going to beat you up.

Get what the *blank* (fill in favorite military unit or law enforcement agency) uses.
I really hate this advice! Just because an agency buys a particular gun doesn’t mean it’s the one for you.

Get whatever feels best in your hand
This piece of advice is the worst of all. It rules the roost of bad gun buying advice, because what you're asking a newbie with little understand of guns to do is select a piece of life saving equipment based purely on how it feels. Let me tell you something, there are a lot of guns that feel wonderful when you hold them, but that can't get through a box of ammo without a malfunction! That's really the problem. I've had lots of people complain that Glocks don't "feel good" in their hand. Thankfully, I've almost never heard the same thing about M&Ps, which are also awesome, and generally "feel good." But just relying on how a gun "feels" in your hand is the peak of bad advice. It doesn't inform you on how the gun functions, how accurate it is, how reliable it is, or even if it's comfortable when you start to shoot it. There are guns that feel great when you're just holding them, but when you start putting rounds down range you discover that recoil changes things. There are guns that I began shooting a lot, and the safety ended up chewing a hole in my hand.

Get a revolver because they never jam
I love revolvers. I think they're great. They're mechanically interesting, they challenge me as a shooter, and they connect us to history. They also absolutely do fail mechanically, and when they do it frequently requires tools to fix. I understand the reasoning behind this one though, because it assumes the novice is going to want something that is easy to deal with if something goes wrong. Yes, it's true that if you get a light primer hit on a wheelgun, the fix is simple: pull the trigger. But there are plenty of things that could happen to a wheelgun that aren't light primer hits, and fixing those is a lot more complicated than "just pull the trigger." Especially if you can't pull the trigger, because I've seen that happen. So the revolver is not the end-all most simple gun ever made. It has its limitations too.

Get the biggest caliber you can control. I've probably said this at some point in my past, and for that I apologize. This nonsense is how untalented, brand spanking new shooters end up with tiny carry guns chambered in .40 S&W and .45 ACP, which results in them developing a wicked flinch whenever they go and fire it. Think about it: someone with no real gun experience goes and buys a Glock 27 because it's small, and chambered in a "powerful" cartridge. They go the range and it's sharp recoil, so they're disinterested in future practice with it.

Get a pocket gun because most self-defense situations you don't need to shoot. This one drives me up the wall, but I've heard more than a few people say it. The line of reasoning is that since you probably won't need to shoot your gun, the best idea is to get something that is completely unobtrusive, that you won't have to put any effort into carrying. The thing that obviously drives me nuts about this is that it kicks off a logical progression that if followed to its only conclusion is that you don't really need to carry a gun at all, all you need is a gun-shaped object.

Here's the problem: what if your gunfight is an actual gunfight? What if you actually need to shoot someone? All of a sudden that little .380 with crappy sights and a heavy trigger isn't so optimal, is it? No one who's ever been in a real fight wished they had a smaller gun or less ammo; so why would you intentionally compromise your choices?

All you need is a .45
In this scenario, there are two options for good advice. If you think the person is interested in actually becoming a shooter, tell them to get a friggin' .22 LR. Then they can actually learn stuff instead of just hammering bullets low and to left in a B27. However, if you don't think they're really interested in guns as a hobby and just want something for home protection, just tell them to get a full size 9mm service pistol. Be a good friend and explain that handgun stopping power is a myth, and there is not significant difference in terminal ballistics between any of the service cartridges.

Get whatever your local police department uses. I personally have given this one on multiple occasions, because the logic behind it is so appealing. On the surface it makes sense, because the odds are that your local PD isn't going to be carrying some garbage gun around. But the flip side of that is that a gun selected by a committee that is largely disinterested in anything other the price, and intended to be carried around on a duty belt for 12 hours a day unconcealed may not be the best choice for concealed carry. Additionally, political administrators frequently like to saddle their officers with trigger mechanisms that are intended to inhibit negligent discharges, but all they really accomplish making the gun more difficult to shoot should you actually need it.

The point of all of this is to not give people bad advice. When someone who isn't a gun person comes to you for advice, they're in the awful situation of not knowing what they don't know; and they're likely relying on your opinion to steer them in the right direction. What can you do to help them? The best advice possible is to try and get them to take one of the many "introduction" classes, where you don't need a gun to attend, because the range provides all of that. If that's not an option, help them pick a reliable, concealable defensive handgun chambered in 9mm. Like a Glock 19. Or an M&P Compact. Why these? Because they are very reliable. Why 9mm? It’s a good start caliber.

Remember that when someone asks you for this advice they are probably going to put most of their trust in you. I don’t bother with brand names, as long as it IS a brand name. Make sure to steer them toward a reliable brand. There are many out there. Also, steer them toward training. Try to get them to got to a range or class that offers many different guns and calibers to shoot. Let them get their own experience because a gun is a personal thing.

Avoid the above mistakes and explain to your new-to- guns person that care should be taken to find the gun that fits not only physically, but a fit of caliber, and type of gun.

As for me, any good brand ( I like S&W, Ruger, Kahr, and good 1911’s). My favorite caliber is 9mm because I don’t compete anymore, and I like 9mm for defense. But then again, that is only me and my opinion. Go out and get your own opinion!

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Friday, February 12, 2016

SIP (Shelter In Place) Kit at Work or School

Emergency Kits
My wife thinks I have a kit for everything. First aid kits. Shelter in place kits for home, school, and work. Bug out kits. Get home kit. Individual kits in our medical supplies such as a suture kit, wound care kit, etc. Survival kits. EDC (everyday carry) kit. I like kits!
I would suggest that you have a shelter in place (SIP) kit where you work. Most people will have a shelf, a drawer, a cabinet, or a locker where they work. It’s that place where you put your purse, keys, and phone (what I call EDC) at work. I would suggest a SIP kit for those times when you will have to SIP. Most schools or places of business give some type of SIP training whether it is for a tornado or an active shooter incident. It’s these SIP events I want to address.
I think every kit should have a weapon of some sort. Ideally it would be a gun but not everyone can, by law or policy, legally possess a gun. There is pepper spray, tactical knives, a defensive baton, tactical pen, or kubotan. Even your key chain can be a defensive weapon. You can have a “monkey fist” key chain or just a keychain with a lanyard. Swinging keys can be very defensive.
Mask, hand sanitizer, sanitizer wipes. These items can go a long way in the event of a sickness outbreak or a pandemic. Know how to use these items. Especially the mask. Make sure it is at least an M95 or higher and be familiar with the proper way to wear this mask.
Water and a small snack. My locker has about half a case of water bottles in it. I try to rotate these a little bit. If I was a little better organized I’d date them and put them on a rotation schedule. I haven’t done this yet. Crackers and nuts are a good idea. I like jerky. Make sure these items are rotated too. Choose food items that will last and are packaged well. You may be locked down for quite a while and having food and water could mean just being more comfortable or something more.
Basic first aid kit. Most schools or places of business have some sort of first aid kit. I do not trust them. I would suggest building your own. When I build a first aid kit I emphasize blood stoppers. That seems to be a common need from a kit. Most commercial kits don’t have much in the way of stopping a serious wound from bleeding. Basic over the counter meds like aspirin, Tylenol, Imodium, antacids, and cough drops may make a difference.
An emergency blanket. This is especially for cold country. If the electricity was out could you keep warm? You can also use it to treat for shock or as a make shift litter.
Communication device. Cell phone or battery operated radio would be good.
Flashlight. I carry one in my EDC and it is used almost daily. Get a good one and keep the batteries fresh. Perhaps keeping a spare set of batteries for your light and/or radio would be good for your kit.
Playing cards or portable game. You may be SIP for a long time and this would help to pass the time. When I was in the military we would practice exercises often. Sometimes I was stuck in a SIP situation for hours. A deck of cards was like gold!
Maybe a trash bag or two and a small roll of duct tape would be handy.
Put these items into a bag that will be easy to transport, but not so obvious. A purse, small sport bag, or backpack would work well.
This type of kit would be worth its weight in gold in a SIP situation or a bug out situation.
Make a SIP kit!

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 7: Suturing

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques
One of the most important survival skills you will ever learn is how to properly administer first aid. This is something I have given considerable thought to because I live away from care. But in all honesty, the more we can do at home, the better. Apart from the distance involved, which could be the difference between addressing something quickly or facing the consequences, the quicker we all rely less on modern conveniences, the better off we will be.
If you build your own first aid kits (and you should) they will be stocked with supplies for suturing, but using those supplies is not as simple as it sounds. Improper suturing can often times be more harmful than actually allowing the laceration to close on its own. Understanding the mechanics of suturing and applying them correctly can mean the difference between life and death for the individual with an injury.
Deciding When to Suture
In most cases, the best option of closing a wound is the least invasive one. Many lacerations can be closed with steri-strips, glue, or other similar techniques. Sutures should only be used as a last resort. The primary goal of any wound repair should be to clean and bandage the wound and then allow it to close on its own. The human body is amazingly adept at healing when given the chance. However, when the wound will not stay together with strips or glue or is bleeding too profusely, suturing may be the most sensible decision.
Suturing Supplies
Once you have decided to suture a wound, specific criteria must be met in terms of the actual supplies. Ideally, your medical kit will include a suturing kit stocked with all the correct items you will need. However, you should know what pieces are absolute necessities to ensure you have them well stocked and on hand.
• Clean water
• Betadine
• Needle Driver
• Irrigating Syringe
• Suture material
• Gloves
An important note must be made regarding suture material. If you are creating your own medical kit, you will need to ensure you have appropriate suturing material. There are multiple varieties of needle shapes, needle types, and suture threads. Most common muscle tissue, arm, and leg wounds can be closed with suture thread size 4 and 5. For more delicate areas like the mouth, suture size 2 or 3 is preferred. Most wounds can be closed with thin, curved needles. Keeping a variety of these suture materials in your kit will make sure you have the supplies you need if the situation calls for them.
Cleaning the Wound
In every instance of dealing with a skin lacerations, cleaning the wound is the first and most critical step. In the last post we went into detail about wound care so I’ll refer to that. But know that cleanliness and infection prevention or management is extremely important.
Beginning the Process
Once bleeding has been stopped or slowed, and the wound has been cleaned, suturing can begin. It is imperative you keep the injured area as clean and sterile as possible before, during, and after. Although that is often difficult in survival situations, it will go a long way in minimizing the risk of infection. One way to accomplish this is to wear sterile gloves and to have all materials cleaned, prepared, and ready to go before you begin the procedure. This will reduce the amount of time you will actually be handling the wound. Orient the wound so that it is parallel to your body to also allow you to work quicker.
Suturing the Wound
In its most basic form, a suture is simply a series of knots tied over an open wound to enable and aid the skin to close properly. A variety of knots can and have been used, each of them specifically suited for a certain type of injury. However, in a survival situation, the goal should always be health. Learning the most basic form of knots will allow you to close the wound properly.
Basic Steps
Although it may seem like a large amount of information, suturing a wound can be a simple process, particularly if you have practiced for it. Just remember these key basic steps:
1. Observe the wound and determine the best way to close it.
2. Put gloves on to minimize potential infection.
3. Clean and irrigate the wound, removing any foreign matter or debris.
4. Thread the curved needle, or open your suture kit and grasp the needle with your needle driver.
5. Start at the center of the laceration and work outwards.
6. Leave approximately 1/8 an inch between each stitch.
7. Bandage the wound to minimize later infection.
After the Suture
Aftercare is a unique element in survival medicine. Although patient comfort is definitely important, the primary focus here is avoiding infection. Regularly changing bandages, which means twice a day, keeps the laceration clean and allows you to check for any sign of infection. If the wound does not appear to be healing, or if there is any infectious evidence, it may be necessary to reopen the wound and determine if any foreign debris remained inside that you may have missed.
Looking at wound care realistically you will fast realize that you need a lot of supplies to care for a wound. And that is a wound that is not infected and is healing quickly and well. If there are complications, your supplies will be even more taxed. Know this when you prepare your kits and supplies.
Besides suturing there are other ways to manage a wound.
Skin tape (Steri-Strips) is a thin adhesive strip that you would use to close small wounds. You just apply it across the injury (making sure the edges are aligned) and pull the skin on either side of the wound together to line up with one another.
Glue can also be used. Super Glue and medical cyanoacrylate glue used in hospitals and doctors' offices apparently have an identical composition. I've seen super glue work many times with children, and, I’ve used it myself. You just clean the wound really well with warm water and soap dry the laceration and place small beads (droplets) of the glue at the ends and a few in the center. No need to apply a heavy line (and in fact it usually will not hold as well). The glue will hold and begin to sloth off around 3 to 7 days - more than enough time for healing. And, it doesn't scar as bad a sutures would (sometimes not at all!)
Be aware that if a wound should be closed, use the less evasive way possible.
Suturing can be practiced on a pigs foot or an orange. There are many instructive videos on the internet but ideally, find a medical professional who can teach you. Like anything else, practice makes perfect. Or perfect practice makes perfect.
This was the last skill in this series. You may find other basic medical skills that you can learn and practice. Taking vital signs might be another one. Blood pressure, pulse, and temperature can tell you a lot about what is going on with someone. Another skill might be starting and maintaining an IV. Find good information and get good training. Be careful with the information that is out there, including what I’ve just presented. Find a good source of medical knowledge, (a doctor, nurse, EMT, or medic you know that you can trust) and compare what you learn with their advice.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 6: Wound Dressing

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques

Wound Dressing
These wounds could be open wounds, skin diseases, frostbite, trench foot, and burns.
Open Wounds
Open wounds are serious in a survival situation, not only because of tissue damage and blood loss, but also because they may become infected. Bacteria on the object that made the wound, on the individual's skin and clothing, or on other foreign material or dirt that touches the wound may cause infection.
By taking proper care of the wound you can reduce further contamination and promote healing. Clean the wound as soon as possible after it occurs by--
Removing or cutting clothing away from the wound.
Always looking for an exit wound if a sharp object, gun shot, or projectile caused a wound.
Thoroughly cleaning the skin around the wound.
Rinsing (not scrubbing) the wound with large amounts of water under pressure.
The "open treatment" method is the safest way to manage wounds in survival situations. Do not try to close any wound by suturing or similar procedures. Leave the wound open to allow the drainage of any pus resulting from infection. As long as the wound can drain, it generally will not become life-threatening, regardless of how unpleasant it looks or smells.
Cover the wound with a clean dressing. Place a bandage on the dressing to hold it in place. Change the dressing daily to check for infection.
If a wound is gaping, you can bring the edges together with adhesive tape cut in the form of a "butterfly" or "dumbbell
In a survival situation, some degree of wound infection is almost inevitable. Pain, swelling, and redness around the wound, increased temperature, and pus in the wound or on the dressing indicate infection is present.
To treat an infected wound--
Place a warm, moist compress directly on the infected wound. Change the compress when it cools, keeping a warm compress on the wound for a total of 30 minutes. Apply the compresses three or four times daily.
Drain the wound. Open and gently probe the infected wound with a sterile instrument.
Dress and bandage the wound.
Drink a lot of water.
Continue this treatment daily until all signs of infection have disappeared.
Skin Diseases and Ailments
Although boils, fungal infections, and rashes rarely develop into a serious health problem, they cause discomfort and you should treat them.
Apply warm compresses to bring the boil to a head. Then open the boil using a sterile knife, wire, needle, or similar item. Thoroughly clean out the pus using soap and water. Cover the boil site, checking it periodically to ensure no further infection develops.
Fungal Infections
Keep the skin clean and dry, and expose the infected area to as much sunlight as possible. Do not scratch the affected area. During the Southeast Asian conflict, soldiers used antifungal powders, lye soap, chlorine bleach, alcohol, vinegar, concentrated salt water, and iodine to treat fungal infections with varying degrees of success. As with any "unorthodox" method of treatment, use it with caution.
To treat a skin rash effectively, first determine what is causing it. This determination may be difficult even in the best of situations. Observe the following rules to treat rashes:
If it is moist, keep it dry. If it is dry, keep it moist. Do not scratch it.
Use a compress of vinegar or tannic acid derived from tea or from boiling acorns or the bark of a hardwood tree to dry weeping rashes. Keep dry rashes moist by rubbing a small amount of rendered animal fat or grease on the affected area.
Remember, treat rashes as open wounds and clean and dress them daily. There are many substances available to survivors in the wild or in captivity for use as antiseptics to treat wound:
Iodine tablets. Use 5 to 15 tablets in a liter of water to produce a good rinse for wounds during healing.
Garlic. Rub it on a wound or boil it to extract the oils and use the water to rinse the affected area.
Salt water. Use 2 to 3 tablespoons per liter of water to kill bacteria.
Bee honey. Use it straight or dissolved in water.
Sphagnum moss. Found in boggy areas worldwide, it is a natural source of iodine. Use as a dressing.
Again, use noncommercially prepared materials with caution.
This injury results from frozen tissues. Light frostbite involves only the skin that takes on a dull, whitish pallor. Deep frostbite extends to a depth below the skin. The tissues become solid and immovable. Your feet, hands, and exposed facial areas are particularly vulnerable to frostbite.
When with others, prevent frostbite by using the buddy system. Check your buddy's face often and make sure that he checks yours. If you are alone, periodically cover your nose and lower part of your face with your mittens.
Do not try to thaw the affected areas by placing them close to an open flame. Gently rub them in lukewarm water. Dry the part and place it next to your skin to warm it at body temperature.
Trench Foot
This condition results from many hours or days of exposure to wet or damp conditions at a temperature just above freezing. The nerves and muscles sustain the main damage, but gangrene can occur. In extreme cases the flesh dies and it may become necessary to have the foot or leg amputated. The best prevention is to keep your feet dry. Carry extra socks with you in a waterproof packet. Dry wet socks against your body. Wash your feet daily and put on dry socks.
The following field treatment for burns relieves the pain somewhat, seems to help speed healing, and offers some protection against infection:
First, stop the burning process. Put out the fire by removing clothing, dousing with water or sand, or by rolling on the ground. Cool the burning skin with ice or water. For burns caused by white phosphorous, pick out the white phosphorous with tweezers; do not douse with water.
Soak dressings or clean rags for 10 minutes in a boiling tannic acid solution (obtained from tea, inner bark of hardwood trees, or acorns boiled in water).
Cool the dressings or clean rags and apply over burns.
Treat as an open wound.
Replace fluid loss.
Maintain airway.
Treat for shock.
Consider using morphine, unless the burns are near the face.
A wound untreated can mean death in some cases. The wound need not be large or serious to be life threatening if infected. Prevention of wounds is most desirable and can be a matter of life or death. Having a supply of anti-biotic both medicinal or herbal should be a high priority.
Caring for wounds is an art that should be practiced as well as taught.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Thursday, February 11, 2016

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 5: Know Symptoms

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques

Heart Attack Symptoms
Chest discomfort or pain
This discomfort or pain can feel like a tight ache, pressure, fullness or squeezing in your chest lasting more than a few minutes. This discomfort may come and go.
Upper body pain
Pain or discomfort may spread beyond your chest to your shoulders, arms, back, neck, teeth or jaw. You may have upper body pain with no chest discomfort.
Stomach pain
Pain may extend downward into your abdominal area and may feel like heartburn.
Shortness of breath
You may pant for breath or try to take in deep breaths. This often occurs before you develop chest discomfort, or you may not experience any chest discomfort.
You may feel a sense of doom or feel as if you're having a panic attack for no apparent reason.
In addition to chest pressure, you may feel dizzy or feel like you might pass out.
You may suddenly break into a sweat with cold, clammy skin.
Nausea and vomiting
You may feel sick to your stomach or vomit.
Most heart attacks begin with subtle symptoms — with only discomfort that often is not described as pain. The chest discomfort may come and go. Don't be tempted to downplay your symptoms or brush them off as indigestion or anxiety.
Don't "tough out" heart attack symptoms for more than five minutes. Call 911 or other emergency medical services for help.
If you don't have access to emergency medical services, have someone drive you to the nearest hospital. Drive yourself only as a last resort, if there are absolutely no other options.
Heart attack symptoms vary widely. For instance, you may have only minor chest discomfort while someone else has excruciating pain. One thing applies to everyone, though: If you suspect you're having a heart attack, call for emergency medical help immediately.
Heat Exhaustion
Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion may develop suddenly or over time, especially with prolonged periods of exercise. Possible heat exhaustion signs and symptoms include:
• Cool, moist skin with goose bumps when in the heat
• Heavy sweating
• Faintness
• Dizziness
• Fatigue
• Weak, rapid pulse
• Low blood pressure upon standing
• Muscle cramps
• Nausea
• Headache
When to see a doctor
If you think you're experiencing heat exhaustion:
• Stop all activity and rest
• Move to a cooler place
• Drink cool water or sports drinks
Contact your doctor if your signs or symptoms worsen or if they don't improve within one hour. Seek immediate medical attention if your body temperature reaches 104 F (40 C) or higher.
Stroke Symptoms
Watch for these signs and symptoms if you think you or someone else may be having a stroke. Note when your signs and symptoms begin, because the length of time they have been present may guide your treatment decisions:
• Trouble with speaking and understanding. You may experience confusion. You may slur your words or have difficulty understanding speech.
• Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg. You may develop sudden numbness, weakness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, especially on one side of your body. Try to raise both your arms over your head at the same time. If one arm begins to fall, you may be having a stroke. Similarly, one side of your mouth may droop when you try to smile.
• Trouble with seeing in one or both eyes. You may suddenly have blurred or blackened vision in one or both eyes, or you may see double.
• Headache. A sudden, severe headache, which may be accompanied by vomiting, dizziness or altered consciousness, may indicate you're having a stroke.
• Trouble with walking. You may stumble or experience sudden dizziness, loss of balance or loss of coordination.
When to see a doctor
Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any signs or symptoms of a stroke, even if they seem to fluctuate or disappear.
Think "FAST" and do the following:
• Face. Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop?
• Arms. Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? Or is one arm unable to raise up?
• Speech. Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is his or her speech slurred or strange?
• Time. If you observe any of these signs, call 911 immediately.
Call 911 or your local emergency number right away. Don't wait to see if symptoms go away. Every minute counts. The longer a stroke goes untreated, the greater the potential for brain damage and disability.
If you're with someone you suspect is having a stroke, watch the person carefully while waiting for emergency assistance.
These are symptoms and not really any procedures for you to do. Notice all the above includes calling 911 or seeing a doctor.
I think that this information is something you should know now, when facilities and access to providers is plentiful. If some of these problems were to happen without hospitals and doctors, there would be little you could do except basic first aid or CPR. It is beyond the intent of this guide to teach treatments for these complicated problems.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 4: Deliver A Baby

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques

Delivering a baby
If you have a family member who is expecting a baby, it's important to be prepared in case the baby decides to come before anyone is ready. Delivering a baby is not hard, but it can be overwhelming.
It's important to remember that delivering your baby in a hospital is the safest way to go. Do not use the information presented here as a substitute for getting proper prenatal care and arranging for delivery at an appropriate facility.
It's up to the baby when the baby is ready to come. After that, kids rule your life. I’ve had several and they still take my time, money, and sweat.
1. Go to the hospital. As the uterus contracts to push the baby out of the birth canal, Mom should feel pain and pressure. When Mom feels labor progressing, especially if her water breaks, it's time to go to the hospital or call an ambulance. No matter how well this guide prepares you, it's better to deliver with the help of a professional.

If you're cutting it close, call 911. If not, then you may be able to take the car. Either way, get going toward the hospital or midwife as soon as possible. Having said this I realize this is a guide for delivery during a time when hospitals and health care may not be available.

2. Get comfortable. If you're not able to go to the hospital, then mom needs space. Get her some pillows and a spot on the floor or large bed. Put some clean sheets down so baby doesn't touch the dirty floor if on the floor. Mom will need at least one pillow under her hips. She can lay on her side until delivery. Prop up mom's back and support her during contractions.
Baby is going to be very slippery. Putting mom on the floor makes sure that baby doesn't fall very far if you don't keep a good grip on him or her!
3. Wash your hands. Baby will be born with very little immune system and is susceptible to infections. Follow universal precautions and wear personal protective equipment if you have it. Remember once you've washed your hands not to touch anything but mom, baby and the bedding.

4. Check for crowning. As the cervix dilates, the baby's head moves down the birth canal and becomes visible. If you can see baby's head, then birth is imminent.

You should be able to see the head clearly once it's visible. If it is obscured by a membrane stretched across it, then pinch the membrane and twist. The membrane is the amniotic sac, which should already have broken. If not, it will break easy when pinched and release the amniotic fluid. After that, things will move quickly!

5. Guide the baby. Put your hand in front of the baby's head and let it come out nice and slow. Don't try to hold the baby back, but don't let it explode from the vagina either.

The baby will slide out slowly in waves as mom's uterus contracts. As the baby comes out, it will turn to the side naturally. There is no need to try to force the baby or help it.

Putting some gentle pressure on the base of the vagina near the perineum will help baby's head pass.

6. STOP! Baby's head is out and Mom needs to stop pushing (easy for me to say). Clean baby's nose and mouth with a bulb syringe. If you don't have a bulb syringe, use a clean towel to wipe away fluid and membrane from baby's airway.

If you see the umbilical cord wrapped around the baby’s neck, try to slip the cord over the baby's head. This is important, but there is a possibility you will not be able to release the cord. If the cord won't go, deliver the baby anyway.

7. Guide the shoulders. Do NOT pull on the baby, but guide its shoulders out, starting with the top shoulder. If there is difficulty, you can put pressure on mom's abdomen just above the pubic bone to encourage the top shoulder to deliver.

Once the shoulders are out, baby is going to slip right through. Hold on tight; the baby is slippery and will probably wiggle.

8. Wrap baby up. Other than clearing the airway, the most important thing you can do for the baby is keeping it warm. Make sure to cover from head to toe, but leave the face open so the baby can breathe.

9. Deliver the placenta. After the baby is delivered, the placenta will come. Don't try to force it or pull on the umbilical cord. The placenta will naturally deliver in about ten or fifteen minutes.

10. Newborn babies don't have the ability to control their temperature well, so it's very important that they be kept warm and dry. If you've had a vaginal delivery and you and your baby are both in good condition, he should be placed directly onto your abdomen and dried off there. He'll be covered with a warm towel or blanket and given a cap to keep his head warm. Skin-to-skin contact will help keep your baby warm and let Mom start bonding as well.

11. Clamp the umbilical cord in two places and then cut between the two clamps. (Your partner can do the honors if he wants to!) Routinely the cord is cut almost immediately after birth. However, recent research shows that waiting a few minutes – so that extra blood flows from the placenta to the baby – lowers the risk of newborn anemia and iron deficiency in infancy.

12. Further suctioning of the baby’s nose and mouth may be done at this time. Also any further cleaning of the baby may be done now if it can be done with the baby in a warm place.

I have been present at many births (more than 7) and can tell you that it is always an amazing thing. But even though those births were in a hospital or birthing center I am confident that I could deliver a baby. My only anxiety would be with a complication. I would not know what to do without help and facilities. But in a situation where there is no choice I would have to mitigate whatever came up. This true for many different problems and scenarios. The reason for this very basic guide is to give basic information and some idea of what may be needed. As always, I am not a doctor and none of this should be considered medical advice.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wednesday, February 10, 2016

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 3: Establishing An Airway

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques

Establishing an airway
This doesn’t necessarily mean jabbing a hollow pen in someone’s neck, although this could become necessary in a extreme situation. There are basic ways of trying to establish an airway. l
Airway management must be rapid and effective for the patient to survive. A stepwise approach to airway management, starting with the simplest and most rapidly applied, will ensure that the best method for securing the airway is used.
To live and function properly every cell must receive a continuous supply of oxygen, and waste products must be removed. This process can be interrupted if the air passages become obstructed.
Patients requiring resuscitation often have an obstructed airway which may be the cause or the result of unconsciousness. This obstruction can be partial or complete and can affect the upper or lower respiratory tract, or both.
Common causes of airway obstruction are:
• the relaxed tongue falling back in the throat;
• foreign material, such as blood, vomit, saliva,
• displaced dentures,
• food,
• small toys,
• pulmonary hemorrhage;
The relaxed tongue is the most common obstruction but good manual airway techniques can manage the problem, suction and patient positioning can assist in removing foreign material and choking procedures can remove foreign objects.
Airway obstruction can be recognized by the look, listen and feel approach.
1. look for chest and abdominal movements
2. listen and feel for airflow at the mouth and nose.
In partial airway obstruction, air entry is reduced and usually noisy. Expiratory wheeze suggests an obstruction of the lower airways which tend to collapse and obstruct during expiration. Other sounds include: gurgling − suggesting the presence of liquids or semi-solid material in the airways, such as blood or vomit; and snoring − arising from the airway being partially occluded by the tongue or palate.
Complete airway obstruction in a patient who is making respiratory effort results in observing chest and abdominal movement. As the patient tries to inhale, the chest is drawn in and the abdomen expands, with the opposite happening during expiration.
Once any degree of obstruction is recognized, immediate measures should be taken to maintain a clear airway.
Opening an airway
Manual methods of airway control are:

1. Head tilt, chin lift in non-traumatic situations;
2. Jaw thrust. This is the technique of choice with patients with suspected cervical spine injuries
These simple positional methods are successful in most cases where the obstruction is the result of relaxation of the tongue and soft tissues. After each maneuver check for success using the look, listen and feel sequence. If a clear airway cannot be achieved, other causes of airway obstruction must be taken care of.
These are basic CPR ideas. Take a CPR class and stay qualified. Even if you don’t take a refresher course often, review the CPR steps and you can even practice them to a certain degree.
Be familiar with doing a Tracheotomy.
This procedure, technically called a cricothyroidotomy, should be undertaken only when a person with a throat obstruction is not able to breathe at all-no gasping sounds, no coughing-and only after you have attempted to perform the Heimlich maneuver three times without dislodging the obstruction. If possible, someone should call for paramedics while you proceed.
What you will need
A first aid kit, if available
A razor blade or very sharp knife
A straw (two would be better) or a ballpoint pen with the inside (ink-filled tube) removed. If neither a straw nor a pen is available, use stiff paper or cardboard rolled into a tube. Good first aid kits may contain "trache" tubes.
There will not be time for sterilization of your tools, so do not bother; infection is the least of your worries at this point.
How to Proceed
1. Find the person's Adam's apple (thyroid cartilage).
2. Move your finger about one inch down the neck until you feel another bulge. This is the cricoid cartilage. The indentation between the two is the cricothyroid membrane, where the incision will be made.
3. Take the razor blade or knife and make a half-inch horizontal incision. The cut should be about half an inch deep. There should not be too much blood.
4. Pinch the incision open or place your finger inside the slit to open it.
5. Insert your tube in the incision, roughly one-half to one inch deep.
6. Breathe into the tube with two quick breaths. Pause five seconds, then give one breath every five seconds.
7. You will see the chest rise and the person should regain consciousness if you have performed the procedure correctly. The person should be able to breathe on their own, albeit with some difficulty, until help arrives.
Remember, a tracheotomy is an extreme-case procedure. Do this only if you feel there is no other way to restore the airway. I do not recommend doing a tracheotomy but have included instructions because the need could arise. This is best done with medical help available. Any type of procedure that is extreme can cause additional damage or infection and those risks should be considered. But doing this procedure is desirable over death.
May I wimp out one more time and say that I am not a doctor or healthcare professional. This is information I have found to be part of an end-of-the-world scenario and not for normal day use. Seek professional medical help always if possible.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 2: Bleeding

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques

Stop bleeding
Knowing how to stop bleeding could save someone’s life. Some uncommon ways to stop bleeding (for smaller wounds) include Sugar, cornstarch, Vaseline, vinegar and even spider webs in dire situations.
Abdominal and chest wounds can be quite serious because internal organs may be damaged, which can cause internal bleeding and even shock. Abdominal and chest wounds are considered an emergency, and you should call for immediate medical help, especially if there are symptoms of shock, such as dizziness, weakness, pale and clammy skin, shortness of breath, and increased heart rate.
While waiting for medical care, give first aid treatment for shock. Have the injured person lie quietly with his or her feet elevated about 12 inches. Cover him or her with a blanket to maintain body warmth.
First Aid for Cuts and Wounds
• Help the person to remain calm. If the cut is large or bleeding heavily, have them lie down. If the wound is on an arm or leg, raise the limb above the heart to slow bleeding.
• Remove obvious debris from the wound, such as sticks or grass. If the object is embedded in the body, do NOT remove it.
• If the cut is small, wash it out with soap and water. Do NOT clean a large wound.
• After putting on clean latex gloves, apply firm pressure to the wound with a folded cloth or bandage for about 10 minutes. Do not remove the bandage to look at the wound during this time, as it may begin bleeding again. If blood soaks through, add another cloth or bandage and continue holding pressure on the cut for an additional 10 minutes.
• When bleeding has stopped, tape a clean bandage over the cut.
Direct Pressure
Apply generous pressure to the wound site with a dressing, a piece of clothing, or even your bare hand if necessary. Time is not your friend when someone’s bleeding out, so don’t worry about rummaging for sterile dressings. An infection might take weeks to kill, but major blood loss kills within minutes. Use a combination of direct pressure, elevating the wound above heart level (if possible), and improvised dressings. If a dressing soaks through, don’t remove it. Just add another dressing on top and continue the pressure until the bleeding stops.
Pressure Points
If severe bleeding does not stop with direct pressure and elevation, switch tactics and apply direct pressure to the nearest artery. When you apply pressure to an artery, you stop bleeding by pushing the artery against bone. There are specific major arteries in the body where pressure should be placed. Press down firmly on the artery between the bleeding site and the heart, closer to the heart. After bleeding stops, do not continue to apply pressure to an artery for longer than five minutes. This technique requires knowledge of the major arterial pressure points. There are several pressure points used in emergency medical treatment of severe bleeding, but the two most common points are the femoral artery and the brachial artery.
• Femoral Artery
The femoral artery is the primary pressure point for the legs. There is one in each upper thigh, inside the thigh near the area of the groin. This artery can require much more pressure than other arteries because of its deeper location.
• Brachial Artery
Bleeding from the arms or hands can be reduced or stopped with pressure to the brachial artery. This point is on the inside of the upper arm, between the bicep and edge of the triceps, several inches down from the armpit. Feel for a pulse there and apply pressure with several fingers or your thumb.
If the injury is so severe that these methods aren’t stemming the flow of blood, it’s time to consider using a tourniquet. The victim might lose the body part due to lack of circulation, but this has been proven to be rare on the battle field. Remember though, we are talking about scenarios where additional medical care is not available. Select a strong, broad, flexible object, such as a rolled-up shirt, thick cord, rope, or belt. It should not be so thin as to cut into tissue and cause further injury or bleeding. Wrap the tourniquet around the limb as close to the injury as possible, and tie it off as tightly as you can. Alternatively, you can tie the tourniquet around the limb in a loose loop, then tie a handle such as a short, strong stick inside the knot of the loop. Turn the handle several times to twist and tighten. Whatever method you use, you should secure the tourniquet so that it does not come unwound. If possible, dress and bandage the wound, mark the time the tourniquet was applied so that you can later inform the professionals, then get the victim to medical care as soon as possible. Think of your role here more as plumber than doctor—squeeze off the pipes to stop the flow.
All of the above suggests the supplies to be successful. Most store bought first aid kits these days will not address any but the most basic of cuts. 2 to 4 gauze pads will do little in a serious wound. Build your own first aid kits. Blood stopping is one of goals of your first aid kit. This requires what I call “blood stoppers”. Surgical pads are usually thicker than regular pads. Often they are “4x4’s” larger than what are included in kits. It has been said that feminine pads can be used as blood stoppers. I guess that if you had nothing else this would help. Diapers have also been suggested in this case. These items are made to absorb. You don’t want a product to absorb blood, but to create a barrier to help the blood to clot and seal the wound. These two products in particular will wick blood away. You need blood stoppers, not absorbers. If that is all you have it’s better than a rag I suppose. Remember the idea is to stop the bleeding not to just keep the floor clean. So when you build your first aid kits, use actual gauze rather than sanitary pads or diapers. The cost is higher but the idea is to save life. This goes for bullet wounds. Do not use tampons if you can help it. Instead of these items a clean cotton shirt is probably a better choice. Effective hemorrhage control is to tightly pack gauze up against the damaged vessel, and inside the wound, and hold it under pressure. Medical gauze is specifically designed for this purpose. It puts a significant amount of ‘surface area’ in the form of the gauze fibers in the area where the blood is leaking out.
Quick clot is a proven product. But I would suggest not using Quick clot unless everything else does not work. If a wound will not stop bleeding with pressure then by all means use what will work. Quick clot is not a “magic wand” that will instantly stop bleeding. Also there has been concern with getting Quick clot in a wound rather than just on the surface to stop the bleeding. I would suggest something called an Israeli Battle Dressing. It is a 4x4 dressing connected to an elastic bandage with a pressure applicator. Learn how to use these correctly. They can even be applied one handed.
Stopping bleeding is not as basic as it seems but with some knowledge and some supplies it can become much easier.
Depending on the source of the hemorrhage death may only take 20 seconds to a couple of minutes. Exsanguination is the term for bleeding to death. If the bleeding is from an arterial source, time is of the essence. You can be ready for this.
As I tried to cover my butt before, I will do so again. I am not a doctor or medical professional. Get trained from a professional.
Semper Paratus
Check 6

Tuesday, February 9, 2016

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 1: Breaks and Dislocation

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques

Setting a Broken Bone
I am not a doctor. I am not a healthcare provider in any way. But I have lots of kids. I’ve dealt with lots of injuries and watched how professionals took care of them and their procedures. Obviously this minimal experience and You tube videos do not constitute training. But I feel in certain situations I could take care of certain injuries.
Without an X-ray of the injured area it is very difficult to really know what has happened in the injury. But some things are obviously broken. Learn what a broken bone looks like so that you can recognize it when you see it again. I broke my collar bone in a car accident and would not have known it by just looking at the injury. Enduring pain, difficulty in moving the injured area, bruising, and swelling are all signs of a fracture or break. None of these symptoms mean a fracture for sure and could indicate other injuries.
Obviously, if you have a broken bone, you’ll want to go to a professional to have the bone reset.
However, in an emergency situation, and no way a professional will be able to care for the injured person, you must be able to help. What can you do to set the bone or at least hold it in place until you can get some help?
There are two types of fractures - open and closed. Open fractures typically have a bone protruding through the skin and includes an open wound. A closed fracture has no open wound.

If you have an open fracture, it is recommended that you manipulate the injury as little as possible. This is due to the fact that you can mess up nerves and blood vessels.
If you notice that there is a lot of swelling, numbness or discoloration below the break, this may be a sign that a major blood vessel has been severed. If this is the case, you’ll need to control the internal bleeding, allow the person to rest and provide them with lots of fluids.
If you feel that you need to quickly place the bone back in position you can use a tree notch to assist you in holding your arm in place while you adjust.
If the broken bone is in a very muscular area (ie. thigh), you’ll need to create a splint until you can get some help. Here is an example of a splint that you can make in the wilderness:
Wait for the swelling to go away before you set a bone.
If the bone is out of its natural position, setting it will help it heal. But if you do not know how to set a bone correctly, you can cause a lot of damage by doing it wrong. If possible, someone with experience should set a bone. Many communities have experienced bonesetters or community health workers who know how to do this well.
Step 1:
First give pain medicine. You can also give an anti-anxiety medicine like to help the person stay calm.
Step 2:
Ask a helper to hold the part close to the body still or tie it to something that will not move.
Step 3:
Pull the more distant part with a slow, steady, strong force. Do not yank, but pull hard enough to separate the bones.
Step 4:
When the pieces of bone are separated, gently line up the two edges and let them come back together.
Do not try to set a bone if the break seems to go into the joint or if there seems to be more than one break, leaving a “floating” piece of bone in the middle. Do not jerk or force the bones in place. This can cause permanent damage. Get help.
Make a cast
Casts can be made from pieces of cloth and a syrup or plaster mix that dries hard.
In Mexico several different plants such as tepeguaje (a tree of the bean family) and solda con solda (a huge, tree-climbing arum lily) are used to make casts. In India, traditional bone setters make casts using a mixture of egg whites and herbs. The methods are similar. Any plant will do if a syrup can be made from it that will dry hard and firm and will not irritate the skin. Usually the plant is boiled in water until a thick syrup forms. Or use Plaster of Paris mixed with water.
How long does a broken bone take to heal? A young child heals in a few weeks. An old person’s bones take months and may never heal properly. Keep a cast on the arm, or keep it immobilized, for at least a month. Legs should stay immobilized for about 2 months.
As we’ve said, do not try this at home.
Dislocated bones are when bone joints have been separated. They can be very painful. They can push against nerve and blood vessels causing nerve tenderness and your circulatory system to have trouble.
You can tell if you have a dislocated bone because it will be tender along the joint, have swelling, discoloration, limited range of motion and sometimes deformity.
You can use simple weights to pull the bones back into place. If done properly, the pain should decrease and allow for natural function and circulation.
I feel we all should have a working knowledge of this procedure.

Semper Paratus
Check 6

Friday, February 5, 2016

Zeroing A Battle Rifle

Hunting season is coming to an end in some places. A few months ago many hunters took to the ranges of this country to sight in their hunting rifles. I saw it happen as I spend a lot of time at the range. For hunting, it’s pretty important. For defense, it’s just as important. Every hunter will have their favorite “zero” distance. If you hunt big game like Elk, you will probably want to zero at a greater distance than say, Texas deer or hogs. Everyone has their own ideas and you should find what suits you, your rifle, your caliber, and your bullet load. I haven’t hunted in several years and the older I get, the less I want to. I have nothing at all against hunting, I think it’s great sport and useful for wildlife management and just putting meat on the table. Many years ago I hunted with a 30-06. I took deer every year, would field dress it, haul it out, dress it, ¼ it, blah, blah, blah. I hate the processing part but I’m too cheap to pay someone to do it. We used to hunt dove every year, and Javalina too. Now days I think I’d like a .308 for hunting. Anyway, zero for hunting is different than zero for defense. Many people go by the old military standby of zeroing for 100 yards. But I learned that zero for 50 is the best defense because of several things. I’ll go through what I was taught by an Air Force special forces operator who I’ve known for years. I like the way he explained it to me.
This method is for open sights or red dot only, not scopes. And this something I would use with a 5.56/.223 chambered weapon.
As I said above, 50 yards is the ideal zero for defense and here’s why. Shooting a deer is not the same as a man.
When you first sight in a rifle or new sights, set up your target at 25 yards. Sight for dead center bullseye. This way you will know if the rifle is at least on your target before you try it at a greater distance. If the rifle is way off, you’ll catch it here. Fire more than one shot to make sure there is a group on paper. As usual for any sight in, use a stand. Then when you’ve got it sighted at 25 yards bullseye, adjust the sights to 1 inch under the bullseye. Because the bullet has yet to cross the line of sight at a close 25, so 50 will be a little lower.
Then move the target out to 50 yards. You want this to be adjusted to dead center. Once you’ve done this you will be ready to engage a man size target at 250 yards. How can that be? Because of bullet drop (this is a 0.224 caliber, 55 grain .223 bullet). A .223 bullet will hit dead center at 50 yards, 1.4” high at 100 yards, 1.5” at 200 yards, and 7.2” low at 250 yards. So if you aim for center of mass, you will hit a man’s body from close quarters out to 250 yards.
Why not just zero at 100 yards? The bullet drop is similar at 100 yards but you get a significant drop at 250 or 300 yards. It would be in the dirt. The 50 yard dial in for that bullet clearly is the one to use at all those ranges as a defensive round ballistically speaking.
7.62x39 can use this method but past 200 yards the .30 caliber Russian round does not do very well because of bullet drop. The 5.45x39 is similar to the 5.56 so you can use this method with that round.
Zeroing a rifle is important and essential. Anyone who owns a rifle needs to know how to zero it. Experiment and find out if the above will work for you.
You can also experiment with your gun and a stand. This is also assuming your bullet of choice is the .223/5.56. Most battle rifles are chambered for this caliber but I know there are some 7.62x39 and .308 lovers out there. Lots of AK people out there. The different bullet will, of course, give you different ballistics. 100 yards may be in order for other calibers.
Semper Paratus
Check 6