Friday, February 12, 2016

Wilderness or Grid Down Medical Skills 6: Wound Dressing

Medical training is serious and should be given by competent medical professionals. This article and the whole medical series is not medical advice. It is for informational purposes only. Find good medical training in your area before actually doing the procedures in this series.
This is a series designed to give you a basic medical knowledge of what I consider medical skills you should have if there is no help in sight. The skills are:
Broken bones
Bleeding
Establishing an airway
Deliver a baby
Know The Symptoms of a Heart Attack, Heat Exhaustion or a Stroke
Basic Wound Dressing Techniques
Suturing

Wound Dressing
These wounds could be open wounds, skin diseases, frostbite, trench foot, and burns.
Open Wounds
Open wounds are serious in a survival situation, not only because of tissue damage and blood loss, but also because they may become infected. Bacteria on the object that made the wound, on the individual's skin and clothing, or on other foreign material or dirt that touches the wound may cause infection.
By taking proper care of the wound you can reduce further contamination and promote healing. Clean the wound as soon as possible after it occurs by--
Removing or cutting clothing away from the wound.
Always looking for an exit wound if a sharp object, gun shot, or projectile caused a wound.
Thoroughly cleaning the skin around the wound.
Rinsing (not scrubbing) the wound with large amounts of water under pressure.
The "open treatment" method is the safest way to manage wounds in survival situations. Do not try to close any wound by suturing or similar procedures. Leave the wound open to allow the drainage of any pus resulting from infection. As long as the wound can drain, it generally will not become life-threatening, regardless of how unpleasant it looks or smells.
Cover the wound with a clean dressing. Place a bandage on the dressing to hold it in place. Change the dressing daily to check for infection.
If a wound is gaping, you can bring the edges together with adhesive tape cut in the form of a "butterfly" or "dumbbell
In a survival situation, some degree of wound infection is almost inevitable. Pain, swelling, and redness around the wound, increased temperature, and pus in the wound or on the dressing indicate infection is present.
To treat an infected wound--
Place a warm, moist compress directly on the infected wound. Change the compress when it cools, keeping a warm compress on the wound for a total of 30 minutes. Apply the compresses three or four times daily.
Drain the wound. Open and gently probe the infected wound with a sterile instrument.
Dress and bandage the wound.
Drink a lot of water.
Continue this treatment daily until all signs of infection have disappeared.
Skin Diseases and Ailments
Although boils, fungal infections, and rashes rarely develop into a serious health problem, they cause discomfort and you should treat them.
Boils
Apply warm compresses to bring the boil to a head. Then open the boil using a sterile knife, wire, needle, or similar item. Thoroughly clean out the pus using soap and water. Cover the boil site, checking it periodically to ensure no further infection develops.
Fungal Infections
Keep the skin clean and dry, and expose the infected area to as much sunlight as possible. Do not scratch the affected area. During the Southeast Asian conflict, soldiers used antifungal powders, lye soap, chlorine bleach, alcohol, vinegar, concentrated salt water, and iodine to treat fungal infections with varying degrees of success. As with any "unorthodox" method of treatment, use it with caution.
Rashes
To treat a skin rash effectively, first determine what is causing it. This determination may be difficult even in the best of situations. Observe the following rules to treat rashes:
If it is moist, keep it dry. If it is dry, keep it moist. Do not scratch it.
Use a compress of vinegar or tannic acid derived from tea or from boiling acorns or the bark of a hardwood tree to dry weeping rashes. Keep dry rashes moist by rubbing a small amount of rendered animal fat or grease on the affected area.
Remember, treat rashes as open wounds and clean and dress them daily. There are many substances available to survivors in the wild or in captivity for use as antiseptics to treat wound:
Iodine tablets. Use 5 to 15 tablets in a liter of water to produce a good rinse for wounds during healing.
Garlic. Rub it on a wound or boil it to extract the oils and use the water to rinse the affected area.
Salt water. Use 2 to 3 tablespoons per liter of water to kill bacteria.
Bee honey. Use it straight or dissolved in water.
Sphagnum moss. Found in boggy areas worldwide, it is a natural source of iodine. Use as a dressing.
Again, use noncommercially prepared materials with caution.
Frostbite
This injury results from frozen tissues. Light frostbite involves only the skin that takes on a dull, whitish pallor. Deep frostbite extends to a depth below the skin. The tissues become solid and immovable. Your feet, hands, and exposed facial areas are particularly vulnerable to frostbite.
When with others, prevent frostbite by using the buddy system. Check your buddy's face often and make sure that he checks yours. If you are alone, periodically cover your nose and lower part of your face with your mittens.
Do not try to thaw the affected areas by placing them close to an open flame. Gently rub them in lukewarm water. Dry the part and place it next to your skin to warm it at body temperature.
Trench Foot
This condition results from many hours or days of exposure to wet or damp conditions at a temperature just above freezing. The nerves and muscles sustain the main damage, but gangrene can occur. In extreme cases the flesh dies and it may become necessary to have the foot or leg amputated. The best prevention is to keep your feet dry. Carry extra socks with you in a waterproof packet. Dry wet socks against your body. Wash your feet daily and put on dry socks.
Burns
The following field treatment for burns relieves the pain somewhat, seems to help speed healing, and offers some protection against infection:
First, stop the burning process. Put out the fire by removing clothing, dousing with water or sand, or by rolling on the ground. Cool the burning skin with ice or water. For burns caused by white phosphorous, pick out the white phosphorous with tweezers; do not douse with water.
Soak dressings or clean rags for 10 minutes in a boiling tannic acid solution (obtained from tea, inner bark of hardwood trees, or acorns boiled in water).
Cool the dressings or clean rags and apply over burns.
Treat as an open wound.
Replace fluid loss.
Maintain airway.
Treat for shock.
Consider using morphine, unless the burns are near the face.
A wound untreated can mean death in some cases. The wound need not be large or serious to be life threatening if infected. Prevention of wounds is most desirable and can be a matter of life or death. Having a supply of anti-biotic both medicinal or herbal should be a high priority.
Caring for wounds is an art that should be practiced as well as taught.
Semper Paratus
Check 6
Burn

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